International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Literacy and different Stages at diagnosis of Female Breast Cancers: A Retrospective Study from a Regional Cancer Centre

Author Affiliations

  • 1 Department of Hospital Cancer Registry, Dr.B Borooah Cancer Institute, Gopinath Nagar, Guwahati-781016, INDIA
  • 2 Department of Pathology, Dr.B Borooah Cancer Institute, Gopinath Nagar, Guwahati-781016, INDIA

Int. Res. J. Medical Sci., Volume 2, Issue (4), Pages 12-15, April,28 (2014)


Breast cancer is a malignant disease that occurs in the breast tissues of females and rarely encountered even in males. It is known that females with higher education are likely to have a better survival. The female literacy in Assam is low compared to male literacy rate of 73.1%, which may be attributed to multiple factors prevalent in our society. There is also a perception amongst the public that patients who are educated and qualified are likely to be diagnosed in early Stage breast cancers. In this retrospective study, we had tried to see the various educational levels of female breast cancer patients and correlate their educational levels with the various stages at presentation. Our study has demonstrated that formal education of females may lower the proportion of advanced cancers of breast in our population, but formal education is not alone sufficient for the detection of early breast cancers. Community based participation by non-governmental organizations and others to impart awareness on self breast examination to all women without any biases in regards to their education will be beneficial in our population.


  1. Three-year Report of Population Based Cancer Regsitries:2009-2011, NCDIR, ICMR; Bengaluru (2013)
  2. Census of India Report, 2011 Available at, Last accessed March 12, (2014)
  3. American Cancer Society. Breast cancer survival rates by Stage, [Cited serial online] Available at (Last accessed on March 12 2014) (2014)
  4. Norton N. and Perez E.A., How relevant is hormone receptor status in the context of outcome to HER2-positive breast cancer? Breast Cancer Res, 15, 101 (2013)
  5. Cabanes P.A., Salmon R.J., Vilcoq J.R., Durand J.C., Fourquet A. and Gautier C. et al., Value of axillary dissection in addition to lumpectomy and radiotherapy in early breast cancer, The Lancet,339(8804)
  6. Edge S.B., Fritz A.G., Byrd D.R., Greene F.L., Trotti A., Compton C.C., Editors, Cancer Staging manual, AJCC, 7thedition, Springer; New York (2010)
  7. Bratten T., Weiderpass E., Kumle M., Adami H.O., Lund E.,Education and risk of breast cancer in the Norwegian-Swedish women's lifestyle and health cohort study, Int J Cancer, 110, 579–83 (2004)
  8. Leitch A.M., Dodd G.D., Constanza M., Linver M., Pressmen P., McGinnis M. and Smith R.A., American Cancer Society Guidelines for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer: Update 1997, CA Cancer J Clin.,47, 150-53 (1997)
  9. Hussain S.K., Altieri A., Sundquist J. and Hemminki, Influence of education level on breast cancer risk and survival in Sweden between 1990 and 2004, Int J Cancer122(1), 165-9 (2008)
  10. Dalton S.O., During M., Ross L., Carlsen K., Mortensen P.B., Lynch J. and Johansen C., The relation between socioeconomic and demographic factors and tumour Stage in women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark, 1983–1999, Br J Cancer95, 653–9 (2006)
  11. Duffy S.W., Tabar L., Chen H.H., Holmqvist M., Yen M.F. and Abdsalah S et al.,The impact of organized mammography service screening on breast carcinoma mortality in seven Swedish counties—a collaborative evaluation, Cancer, 95, 458–69 (2002)