International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Prevalence of active HCV Infection and identification of its common Genotypes in District Mardan, Pakistan

Author Affiliations

  • 1 Khyber Medical Collage, Peshawar Khyber Paktunkhwa, PAKISTAN
  • 2 Microbiology Department Hazara University, Mansehra, PAKISTAN
  • 3 Peshawar Medical Collage, Peshawar, Khyber Paktunkhwa PAKISTAN
  • 4 Institute of Microbiology, University of Sindh Jamshoro Sindh PAKISTAN
  • 5 Zoology Department KUST, Khyber Paktunkhwa, PAKISTAN
  • 6 IBMS Khyber Medical University, Peshawar Khyber Paktunkhwa, PAKISTAN
  • 7 Zoology Department Hazara University Mansehra, Khyber Paktunkhwa, PAKISTAN

Int. Res. J. Medical Sci., Volume 2, Issue (4), Pages 7-11, April,28 (2014)


The present study demonstrate the prevalence of active Hepatitis C viral infection and identification of its common genotypes circulating in district Mardan. A total of 582 patients were enrolled in this study in which 267 were male and 315 were female. Out of 582 samples, 329 were found HCV RNA positive through real-time PCR. The rates of active HCV infection were 59.9% in male while 53.6% in female. Age group above 60 were found with high rate of HCV infection, that is 80%. Out of 329 samples. Further a sum of 220 PCR based HCV RNA positive samples were screened for identification of HCV genotypes. Out of 220 positive samples Genotype 3a was found in 68.1%, 1a in 11.3%, 1b in 4.5%, Mixed-genotype in 4% and 3b in 2.7% while Untypable genotype in 9.5%. It was concluded from the present study that occurrence of active HCV infection rate were high in District Mardan and 3a was the most common genotype present in District Mardan.


  1. Hoofnagle J.H., Course and outcome of hepatitis C, Hepatol, 36(5), 21-29 (2002)
  2. Ogata N., Alter H.J., Miller R.H. and Purcell R.H., Nucleotide sequence and mutation rate of the H strain of hepatitis C virus, Proc Natl Acad Sci 88, 3392-3396 (1991)
  3. Lindenbach B.D., Thiel H.J. and Rice C.M., Flaviviridae: the viruses and their replication. Fields, B.N., Knipe, D.M., Howley P.M., Griffin D.E., Lamb R.A., Martin M.A., Roizman B. and Straus S.E., Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA. (Eds, 5), In Fields virology,5,1101-1152 (2007)
  4. Poynard T., Ratziu V., Benhamou Y., Opolon P., Cacoub P. and Bedossa P., Natural history of HCV infection, Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol,14, 211-228 (2000)
  5. Butt S., Idrees M., Akbar H., Rehman I., Awan Z. and Afzal S., The changing epidemiology pattern and frequency distribution of hepatitis C virus in Pakistan, Infect Genet Evol, 10(5), 595-600 (2010)
  6. Idrees M., Lal A., Naseem M. and Khalid M., High prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in the largest province of Pakistan, J.Dig.Dis, 9, 95-103 (2008)
  7. Farhana M., Hussain I. and Haroon T.S., Hepatitis C.: the dermatologic profile, J Pak Assoc Derm, 18, 171-181 (2009)
  8. Idrees M. and Riazuddin S., Frequency distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in different geographical regions of Pakistan and their possible routes of transmission, BMC Infect Dis,8, 69 (2008)
  9. Ali A., Ahmad H., Ijaz A., Khan S., Zaidi G. and Idrees M., Prevalence of active hepatitis c virus infection in district mansehra Pakistan, Virol J, 7, 334-338 (2010)
  10. Ramia S., and Eid-Fares J., Distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in the Middle East, International J Inf Dis, 10, 272-277 (2006)
  11. Dusheiko G., Main J. and Thomas H., Ribavirin treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis C: results of a placebo-controlled study, Hepatol, 25, 591-598 (1994)
  12. Zein N.N. and Persing D.H., Hepatitis C Genotypes: current trends and future implications, Mayo Clin Proc,71, 458-462 (1996)
  13. Takada N.S., Takase S., Takada A. and Date T., Differences in the hepatitis C virus genotypes in different countries, J Hepatol,17, 277-283 (1993)
  14. Singh B., Verma M. and Verma K., Markers for transfusion associated hepatitis in North Indian blood donors: prevalence and trends, Jpn J Infec Dis, 57, 49-51 (2004)
  15. Tokita H., Shrestha S.M., Okamoto H., Sakamoto M. and Horikita M., Hepatitis C virus variants from Nepal with novel genotypes and their classification into the third major group, J Gen Virol,75, 931-936 (1994)
  16. Abdulkarim A.S., Zein N.N., Germer J.J., Kolbert C.P., Kabbani L. and Krajnik K.L., Hepatitis C virus genotypes and hepatitis G virus in hemodialysis patients from Syria: identification of two novel hepatitis C virus subtypes, Am J Trop Med Hyg, 59, 571-576 (1998)
  17. Simmonds P., Holmes E.C., Cha T.A., Chan S.W., McOmish F. and Irvine B., Classification of hepatitis C virus into six major genotypes and a series of subtypes by phylogenetic analysis of the NS-5 region, J Gen Virol,74,2391-2399 (1993)
  18. Idrees M., Rafique S., Rehman I., Akbar H., Yousaf M.Z. and Butt S., Hepatitis C virus genotype 3a infection and hepatocellular carcinoma: Pakistan experience, World J Gastroenterol, 15, 5080-5085 (2009)
  19. Sobia Attaullah, Sanaullah Khan and Ijaz Ali, Hepatitis C virus genotypes in Pakistan: a systemic review, Virol J, 8,433 (2011)
  20. Asher Zaman Safi, Yasir Waheed, Joharia Sadat, Solat-Ul-Islam, Sadia Salahuddin, Umar Saeed, Muhammad Ashraf, Molecular study of HCV detection, genotypes and their routes of transmission in North West Frontier Province, Pakistan, Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 2(7), 532536 (2012)
  21. Masroor A., Qazi M., Fayyaz G., Chaudhary M.D., Jamil A., Malik A.H., Gardezi A.I. and Bukhari M.H., Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes in Bahawalpur, Biomedical Journal, 22, 13 (2006)
  22. Ali A., Nisar M., Ahmad H., Saif N., Idrees M. and Bajwa M.A., Determination of HCV genotypes and viral loads in chronic HCV infected patients of Hazara Pakistan, Virol J.,8, 466 (2011)
  23. Waqar M., Khan AU., Rehman HU., Idrees M., Wasim M., Ali A., Niaz Z., Ismail Z., Rehman MU., Tariq M., Shah M., Murtaza BN, Determination of hepatitis C virus genotypes circulating in different districts of Punjab (Pakistan), Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol.,26(1), 59-64 (2014)
  24. Inamullah, Idrees M., Ahmed H., Sajid-ul-Ghafoor, Ali, M., Ali, L. and Ahmed, A. Hepatitis C virus genotypes circulating in district Swat of Khyber Pakhtoonkhaw, Pakistan, Virol J,8,16 (2011)
  25. Suliman Qadir Afridi, Muhammad Nouman Zahid, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir, Zeenat Hussain, Nadia Mukhtar, Muhammad Yasin Tipu., Fareeha Akhtar., Tahir Yaqub, Prevalence of HCV genotypes in district Mardan, Virol J., 10, 90 (2013)
  26. Ali A., Ahmed H. and Idrees M., Molecular epidemiology of Hepatitis C virus genotypes in Khyber Pakhtoonkhaw of Pakistan, Virol J , 7, 203 (2010)