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Role of foraminifera and benthic mollusks as biological indicators of the beach environment along the coastal stretches of India

Author Affiliations

  • 119, Raj Krishna Pal Lane, Kolkata – 700 075, India

Res. J. Marine Sci., Volume 9, Issue (1), Pages 13-18, December,13 (2021)


Foraminifera are generally found in the shallow waters of intertidal beach and the sandy bottom with subordinate silt and clay. Possessing a similar environment, the coastal stretches of the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea are found suitable for the flourishment of foraminifera and mollusks that play an important role as biological indicators. Foraminifera as well as the benthic molluscan community found in the intertidal zone along the coastlines of peninsular India are also considered as the biological indicators for beach erosion. All these micro- and macroinvertebrates are environment sensitive taxa and act as pollution indicators. Among foraminiferal communities, Ammonia sp. found in the majority is concentrated at beach sands. In general, Ammonia sp., an abundantly occurring foraminifera in the east coast of India, is almost scarce in the beach sands inundated twice daily by the polluted coastal waters.


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