International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Household Basic Amenities in Rural India: Evidence from NFHS-4 (2015-16)

Author Affiliations

  • 1M.J.K. College, Bettiah, Bihar, India
  • 2Central University of South Bihar, Bodhgaya, Bihar, India

Int. Res. J. Social Sci., Volume 11, Issue (4), Pages 7-15, October,14 (2022)


The present paper aims to examine the status of household basic amenities in rural India. It also aims to explore the factors affecting the household basic amenities in some areas. This study utilizes a national representative data of NFHS -4 (2015-16). A simple cross tabulation method was used to analyse the data. A household basic amenity index has been computed with help of six explanatory variables. A binary logistic regression model has been applied to see the effect of explanatory variables on the dependent variable i.e., household basic amenity index. The results indicate that there was acute shortage of household basic amenities in rural India. The findings also suggest that there was disparity in household basic amenities with social groups, religious groups and wealth index. For sound health and descent life, household basic amenities are essential.


  1. Gattu, N. (2020)., Amenities Gaining Importance.,
  2. Merriam-Webster (2021)., Basic amenities. In dictionary., Retrieved June 26, 2021, from amenities.
  3. Rao Rama, R. V. (2009)., Basic services for the urban poor—innovative actions and interventions., India urban poverty report 222-237. Ministry of housing and urban poverty alleviation, Government of India.
  4. Zena, M. (2017)., Basic amenities still a daydream for hundreds of villages., The Pioneer. Retrieved from
  5. Mahajan, S. K. (2016)., Status of Basic Amenities across Major States of Urban India., North Eastern Economic Review, 1(1), 17-20.
  6. Banerjee, A., Banik, N. and Dalmia, A. (2016)., Demand for household sanitation: The case of India (No. 154)., ARTNeT Working Paper Series.
  7. Census of India. (2011)., Housing, Household Amenities and Assets., New Delhi: Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India.
  8. Kundu, A., Bagchi, S. and Kundu, D. (1999)., Regional distribution of infrastructure and basic amenities in urban India: Issues concerning empowerment of local bodies., Economic and Political Weekly, 34(28), 1893-1906.
  9. Srinivasan, K. and Mohanty, S. K. (2004)., Deprivation of basic amenities by caste and religion: Empirical study using NFHS data., Economic and Political Weekly, 39(7), 728-735.
  10. Motkuri, V. and Joe, W. (2005)., On the Deprivation of Basic Amenities in Rural India: An Analysis of Census 2001., MPRA Paper No. 48445/
  11. Mishra, U. S. and Shukla, V. (2015)., Provisions of basic household amenities in India: A progress report., Social Change, 45(3), 421-439.
  12. Kumar, A. (2017)., Households’ Toilet Facility in Rural India: Socio-spatial Analysis., Indian Journal of Human Development, 11(1), 89-108.