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Hygiene practices and indicators of faecal pollution of groundwater supplying populations living around Lake Toho in South-West Benin

Author Affiliations

  • 1Lab. of Inorganic Chemistry and Environment (LACIE), University of Abomey-Calavi, Abomey-Calavi, Benin
  • 2Lab. of Inorganic Chemistry and Environment (LACIE), University of Abomey-Calavi, Abomey-Calavi, Benin
  • 3Lab. of Biology and Molecular Typing in Microbiology, University of Abomey-Calavi, Abomey-Calavi, Benin
  • 4Lab. of Biology and Molecular Typing in Microbiology, University of Abomey-Calavi, Abomey-Calavi, Benin
  • 5Lab. of Biology and Molecular Typing in Microbiology, University of Abomey-Calavi, Abomey-Calavi, Benin

Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., Volume 11, Issue (4), Pages 13-22, November,10 (2022)


The objective of this work is to examine the microbiological quality of groundwater intended for consumption around Lake Toho while identifying the risks of contamination associated with it. To do this, nineteen (19) water samples, i.e. five wells and fourteen boreholes, were analyzed by the seeding method. Also, we carried out a field survey which focused on nine villages in the three districts (Houin, Zoungbonou and Lokossa) located near the lake. The villages are chosen taking into account the degree of vulnerability of the populations, according to human activities (agriculture, market gardening and fishing) and proximity to the watercourse. The results obtained showed that all the waters analyzed were contaminated by common germs. 37% of the water revealed contamination with E. coli, 26% with shigella. These results show recent faecal contamination of water. Similarly, more than half of the water, or 53%, showed non-compliance with respect to total coliforms, which would indicate old faecal contamination. The germs present in the waters degrade the quality of the water and thus expose the population that consumes it to several waterborne diseases. Drinking water must be free of any presence of these germs in general according to the recommendations of the WHO and the standard of drinking water in Benin, the water analyzed would all be unfit for human consumption. Adequate treatment and regular monitoring must be applied to guarantee the good health of the populations.


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