International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Effectiveness of the Abbreviated Progressive Muscle Relaxation Intervention on Problems of Motor Coordination in Soccer Players

Author Affiliations

  • 1Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kota Bharu, Kelantan MALAYSIA
  • 2 Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Terengganu, MALAYSIA

Res. J. Recent Sci., Volume 3, Issue (IVC-2014), Pages 122-129,(2014)


The present study was undertaken with an objective to study the effect of psychotherapeutic training on improvement of coordination in performance of soccer skills. Eighty one young male soccer players of the city of Kota Bharu in Kelantan province of Malaysia, in the age range of 18.6 to 20.9 years, volunteered as participants. They were assessed with transient anxiety; simple and complexreaction ability; motor coordination; psychobiological measures of tonic and phasic skin conductance activity; assessment of muscle potentiality and soccer agility and soccer juggling skill as measure of pre-intervention analyses. Thereafter, they were randomly and equally categorized into three groups; viz. Group A (N = 27), i.e. control group who didn’t receive any intervention; Group B(N = 27) referred to as the Experimental Group I, who received Abbreviated Progressive Muscle Relaxation or APMR andGroup C (N = 27), hereafter the Experimental Group II, who received active relaxation training. Both of the interventions were introduced to the respective group following standardize protocol (20 minutes/day; 2 days/week for12 weeks). Mid-term analyses (on all of the parameters of pre-intervention analyses were repeated) were done six weeks after the introduction of intervention sessions. Thereafter interventions continued following the similar protocol for six more weeks. Post-intervention analyses following similar analyses protocols were done on all of the participants, and the findings revealed that both APMR and active relaxation training had beneficial impacts on enhancement in autonomic adaptation, whereas compared to active relaxation training, APMR had relatively better beneficial impacts on the level of coordination performancesof the soccer players. Furthermore, due to enhanced coordination performances, significant improvement in soccer juggling performance and in soccer agility was observed in the players who received APMR training.


  1. Nunome H., Ikegami Y., Asai T. and Sato Y. Three dimensional kinetics analysis of in-side and instep soccer kicks, in Science and Football IV (eds W. Spinks, T. Reilly and A. Murphy), Routledge, London, 27–31 (2002)
  2. Dutta P. and Subramanium S., Effects of six weeks of isokinetic strength training combined with skills training on football kicking performance, in Science and Football IV (eds W. Spinks, T. Reilly and A. Murphy), Routledge, London, 333–9 (2002)
  3. Almåsbakk B. and Hoff J., Co-ordination the determinant of velocity specificity? J. App. Phy., 80, 2046–52 (1996)
  4. Togari H., Ohashi J. and Ohgushi T., Isokinetic muscle strength of soccer players, in Science and Football, (eds T. Reilly, A. Lees, K. Davids and W.J. Murphy, E and FN Spon, London, 181–5 (1988)
  5. Oberg B., Eskstrand J., Moller M. and Gillquist J. Muscle strength and flexibility in different positions of soccer players, International J. Sp. Med., 5, 213–16 (1984)
  6. Wisløff U., Helgerud J. and Hoff J., Strength and endurance of elite soccer players, Med. Sc. Sp. and Ex., 30, 462–7 (1998)
  7. Eubank M. and GilbourneD. Stress, performance and motivation theory. Science and Soccer Second Edition,eds, T. Reilly and A. M. Williams, Routledge, London, 214-229 (2003)
  8. Saha Srilekha, Saha S. and Chattopadhyay P. K.. Effect of muscle relaxation training as a function of improvement in attentiveness in children, Pro. Soc. and Beh. Sc., 91, 606 -613 (2013b)
  9. Galvin J. A., Benson H., Deckro G. R., Fricchione G. L. and Dusek J. A., The relaxation response: reducing stress and improving cognition in healthy aging adults, Complement Ther Clin Pract.,12(3), 186-191 (2006)
  10. Wolframm I.A. and Micklewright D., Effects of trait anxiety and direction of pre-competitive arousal on performance in the equestrian disciplines of dressage, Showjumping and Eventing. Comp. Exe. Phy. 7(4), 185-191 (2011)
  11. Barnett A., Smith B., Lord S. R., Williams M. and Baumand A., Community based group exercise improves balance and reduces falls in at-risk older people: a randomized controlled trial, Age and aging, 32, 407-414 (2003)
  12. Faul F., Erdfelder E., Lang A.G. and Buchner A., G*Power 3, A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences, Beh. Res. Met., 39, 175-191 (2007)
  13. Spielberger C.D., Gorsuch R.L. and Lushene R., Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Self-evaluation question). Cons. Psychologist, Press, Palo Alto, California, (1970) , 122-129 (2014)
  14. Dawson M.E, Schell A.M, and Filion D.L. The electrodermal system. In: Cacioppo JT, Tassi- nary LG, Berntson GG, (editors), Handbook of psychophysiology. Cambridge: University Press, 159–81 (2007)
  15. Saha S., Saha Srilekha, Chowdhury D., Fahim N.A. and Salah Uddin M., In search of predictors for reaction ability related to high performance in Cricket, Soc. Sc. Inter., 28(1), 1–18 (2012)
  16. Saha S., Saha Srilekha., Mazlan M.A.B.M. and Arriffin M.I.B.M., Effect of emotional regulation on performance of soccer skills, Pro. Soc.and Sc., 91, 594 – 605 (2013a)
  17. Solnik S., Devita P., Grzegorczyk K., Koziatek A. and Bober T. EMG frequency during isometric, submaximal activity:a statistical model for biceps brachii, Acta of Bioeng. and Biom., 12(3), (2010)
  18. Agnihotri H., Paul M. and Sandhu J.S., Biofeedback approach in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder, Iranian J Psychiatry, 2(3), 90-95 (2013)
  19. Jeon A., Yun S., Jung J., Kim C., Ro J. and Jeon G. Research on the change of the GSR values according to existence and none-existence of alcohol, Int. Fed. Mad. and Bio. Eng. Proc., 14(2), 1142-1144 (2007)