International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Application of silver nanoparticles during bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted soil by Eleusine indica - inhibition or improvement?

Author Affiliations

  • 1Environmental Biotechnology and Sustainability Research Group, Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, University of Benin, Nigeria
  • 2Environmental Biotechnology and Sustainability Research Group, Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, University of Benin, Nigeria

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 9, Issue (3), Pages 7-16, July,18 (2019)


Nanoparticles (NP) have been associated with numerous aspects of plant applications, including crop production and environmental reclamation. The primary reason is to enhance plants capacity during these applications. The purpose of the research was centred on whether application of biosynthesized silver NP would enhance the bioremediation capacity of Eleusine indica in an oil-polluted soil. Top soil was polluted with spent lubricating oil (obtained as pooled) at 5% w/w. A week later, tillers of Eluesine indica (5-leafed and height 8.3±1.2cm) were transplanted into the oil-polluted soils in experimental bowls. Five weeks after sowing, silver NP were synthesized in the laboratory from silver-trioxonitrate, using aqueous leaf extracts of Azadirachtaindica, Carica papaya, Vernonia amygdalina, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Moringa oleifera. These were immediately applied via foliar spray to each plant at 200ml per plant in divided concentrations of 5, 15 and 30% respectively, from top to bottom. A booster dose was applied after two weeks of initial application. The presence of oil in soil had phytotoxic impact on plant morphological characteristics. There was also significant reduction in reproductive capacity of the plant herein presented as number of panicles per plant. However, with the application of nanoparticles, there was improvement in plant acquisition of panicles. Enhancement in plant reproductive capacity was better with plants sprayed with V. amygdalina-based NP (16panicles), compared to those exposed to A. indica-based NP (11 panicles/plant) and 5 panicles in the plants in oil-polluted soil. The efficiency of remediation of hydrocarbons in the oil-polluted soil by the test plant was enhanced upon application of NP (80.0 - 95.0%) compared to when no NP was applied (65.05%). The study thus accentuates the capacity for NP in enhancing plant survival under environmentally stressed conditions. Further, the enhancement of plant remediative capacity in the oil-polluted soil has also been presented.


  1. Ikhajiagbe B., Anoliefo G.O. and Ajimisogbe T. (2015)., Performance of Eleusineindica to abiotic stress occasioned by pesticide pollution., 1st University of Benin Annual Research Day (UBARD) Conference. October 22-23, 2016. Univ. of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria, 323-327.
  2. Ikhajiagbe B., Anoliefo G.O., Idiagi O.I. and Omoregbee O. (2016)., Performance of Eleusineindica to abiotic stress occasioned by pollution of the pesticide 2,2- dichlorovinyl dimethylsulphate., FUW Trends in Science & Technology Journal, 1(2), 399-405. Fed. Univ., Wakuri.
  3. Ikhajiagbe B. and Chijioke-Osuji C.C. (2012)., Heavy metal contents and microbial composition of the rhizosphere of Eleusine indica within an auto-mechanic workshop in Benin City, Nigeria., Journal of the Ghana Science Association, 14(2), 45-55. http//
  4. Wong M.H. and Lau W.M. (1985)., Root growth of Cynodon and Eleusine indica collected from motorways at different concentrations of lead., Environmental Research, 36(2), 257-267.
  5. Wong M.H. and Chu L.M. (1985)., Yield and metal uptake of Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) grown in refuse-compost-amended soil., Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 14(1-2), 41-52.
  6. Ikhajiagbe B., Edegbai B.O., Omoregie G.O. and Eweka A.M. (2017)., Assessment of the phytoreclamation of an oil-contaminated soil cultivated with Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, and Eragrostis tenela., Studia Universitatis Babeş - Bolyai, Biologia, LXII, 1, 53-55.
  7. Garba S.T., Osemeahon A.S., Maina H.M. and Barminas J.T. (2012)., Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA)-Assisted phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soilby Eleusine indica L. Gearth., J. Environ. Chem. Ecotoxicol., 4(5), 103-109.
  8. Choi O. and Hu Z.Q. (2008)., Size dependent and reactive oxygen species related nanosilver toxicity to nitrifying bacteria., Environmental Science and Technology, 42(12), 4583-4588.
  9. Baruah S.K., Pal S. and Dutta J. (2012)., Nanostructured zinc oxide for water treatment., Nanoscience Nanotechnology-Asia, 2, 90-102.
  10. Ahmed F., Santos C.M., Vergara R., Tria M.C.R., Advincula R. and Rodrigues D.F. (2012)., Antimicrobial applications of electroactive PVK-SWNT nanocomposites., Environmental Science and Technology, 46(3), 1804-1810.
  11. Shankar S., Ahmad A. and Sastry M. (2003)., Geranium Leaf Assisted Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles., Biotechnology Progress, 19(6), 1627-1631.
  12. USDA (1998)., Estimating Soil Moisture by Feel and Appearance., United State Dept. of Agriculture. Natural Resources Conservation Service Program Aid Number 1619. April 1998, 6.
  13. Washington State Department of Ecology (1997)., Analytical Methods for Petroleum Hydrocarbons. Publication., Washington State Department of Ecology Toxics Cleanup Program and The Ecology Environmental Laboratory Publication No. ECY 97-602 June
  14. Ikhajiagbe B. (2016)., Biorecovery of a model oil-polluted soil after exposure to solutions of typical salts found in irrigation water., Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai Biologia, 61(1), 133-146.
  15. Boonyanitipong P., Kositsup B., Kumar P., Baruah S. and Dutta J. (2011)., Toxicity of ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles on germinating rice seed Oryzasativa L., Int. J. Biosci. Biochem. Bioninform., 1, 282-285.
  16. Riahi-Madvar A.., Rezaee F.. and Jalili V. (2012)., Effects of alumina nanoparticles on morphological properties and antioxidant system of Triticumaestivum., Iran. J. Plant Physiol., 3, 595-603.