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Functional groups determination and the production of biodiesel from Garcinia Kola seeds using trans-esterification reaction

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
  • 2Department of Microbiology, Abia State University, Uturu, Nigeria
  • 3Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 9, Issue (3), Pages 1-6, July,18 (2019)


Plants are important in our everyday existence. They provide our foods, produce the oxygen we breathe, and serve as raw materials for many industrial products such as clothes, foot wears and so many others. Plants also provide raw materials for our buildings and in the manufacture of biofuels, dyes, perfumes, pesticides and drugs. In this research, Garcinia kola seeds were purchased locally and the seeds were deshelled, washed and allowed to dry. The extraction of oil was done using soxhlet extraction technique (hot method). After the extraction, Biodiesel was then produced from the oil using the Trans-esterification process. The already produced Oil and biodiesel were characterized for its physicochemical properties and the result compared to standards. The bitter kola biodiesel was also exposed to FTIR analysis to determine the functional groups and organic compounds inherent in the biodiesel produced. From the experimental result obtained, the produced were found to meet the ASTM standards for biodiesel. The results obtained from analysis of biodiesel from Garciniakola include free fatty acid: 0.822%; acid value: 1.635mgKOH/g; specific gravity: 0.9; kinematic velocity: 1.714Cst; flash point: 45°C; pour point: 93°C; water content: 5.75%. Thus, the values obtained met with the ASTM standard. The percentage yield of oil from the Bitter kola seed is 34% and then the percentage yield from the bitter kola oil to the biodiesel is 62%. This shows that the poor yield of biodiesel from the seed would affect its usage as a Biofuel and this makes it not suitable to be used as a Biofuel. This research has shown that Garcinia kola seeds and oils are not good sources of Biodiesel. Therefore research should be on and going into more cheap and available materials in the production of biodiesel.


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