International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Solvent-free synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial studies of calcium and potassium complexes with some cephalosporin antibiotics

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Chemistry, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria
  • 2Department of Chemistry, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria
  • 3Department of Chemistry, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 8, Issue (6), Pages 7-14, June,18 (2018)


The solid complexes of potassium and calcium were synthesized with some cephalosporin antibiotics which include: cefixime (CFI), cefuroxime (CFU) and cefradine (CFA). The complexes were synthesized by solvent-free technique and characterized by solubility, molar conductivity, melting point, UV-Vis, IR and elemental analysis. The analytical data of these complexes showed that the antibiotics coordinated to the metals through oxygen atom of the carboxylate anion, oxygen atom of nitrate ion and oxygen atom of carbonyl in both complexes due to similarity in structures of the antibiotics to give a coordination number of five with proposed molecular formula as [M(CFI)NO3], [M(CFU)NO3] and [M(CFA)NO3] where M represents potassium or calcium. The molar conductance values of the complexes suggest that they are non-electrolytes, while the result of antimicrobial activity showed that the complexes have more activity than the antibiotics. The melting point, color and electronic spectra of the complexes were different from those of the antibiotics, which suggest the formation of coordination compounds.


  1. Ndahi N.P., Fugu M.B., Waziri I. and Geidam Y.A. (2017)., Effect of Mechanochemically Synthesized Copper(II) and Silver(I) Complexes with Cefuroxime on Some Cephalosporin Resistance Bacteria., Int. J. Chem, Pharm, Sci., 5(9), 155-160.
  2. Marcel R. (2010)., Metal Complexes as Antimicrobial Agents., Faculty of Biochemistry and Pharmacy, National University of Rosario, Argentina.
  3. WHO (2014)., Review of Antimicrobial Resistance Fact sheet N˚ 194., Retrieved, March 2018.
  4. Cassir N., Rolain J.M. and Brouqu P. (2014)., A new Strategy to Fight Antimicrobial Resistance: The revival of old Antibiotics., Frontiers in Microbiology, 5, 551.
  5. WHO (2014)., Antimicrobial Resistance: Global Report on Surveillance 2014., Retrieved, 18/01/2018.
  6. Antibiotics/Antimicrobial Resistance CDC (2017). 15/12/2017., undefined, undefined
  7. Goossens H., Ferech M., Vander S.R. and Elseviers M. (2005)., Outpatient Antibiotic Used in Europe and Associated with Resistance: A cross-national Database Study., Lancet, 365(9459), 579-587.
  8. Arnold S.R. and Straus S.E. (2005)., Intervention to Improve Antibiotics Prescribing Practice in Ambulatory Care., Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.
  9. Tacconelli E., De Angelis G., Cataldo MA., Pozzi E. and Cauda R. (2008)., Does Antibiotic Exposure increase the risk of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Isolation? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis., J. Antimicrob.Chemother, 61(1), 26-38.
  10. Sayed H.A., Ilka K., Beate S., Matthias B., Yahya M., Cornelia G., Reinhard H. and Neubert H. (2009)., Effect of Different Metal Ions on the Biological Properties of Cefadroxil., Pharmaceuticals, 2(3), 184-193.
  11. Dollwet H.H.A. and Sorenson J.R.J. (1985)., Historic uses of Copper Compounds in Medicine., Trace Elements in Medicine, 2(2), 80-87.
  12. Mishra N., Poonia K. and Kumar D. (2013)., An overview of Biological Aspects of Schiff base Metal Complexes., International Journal of Advancements in Research & Technology, 2(8), 52-66.
  13. Abdel-Wahab M.S., Youssef S.K., Aly A.M., El-Fiki S.A., El-Enany N. and Abbas M.T. (1992)., A simple calibration of a whole-body counter for the measurement of total body potassium in humans., International journal of radiation applications and instrumentation, Part A. Applied radiation and isotopes, 43(10), 1285-1289.
  14. Chang Raymond (2007). McGraw-Hill Higher Education, Chemistry, 52., undefined, undefined
  15. Vasak M. and Schnabl J. (2016)., Sodium and potassium ions in proteins and enzyme catalysis., In The Alkali Metal Ions: Their Role for Life, Springer, Cham, 259-290.
  16. Malnic G., Giebisch G., Muto S., Wang W., Bailey M.A. and Satlin L.M. (2013)., Regulation of K+ excretion., In Seldin and Giebisch.
  17. Mount D.B. and Zandi-Nejad K. (2012)., Disorders of Potassium Balance., In: Taal MW, Chertow GM, Marsden PA, Skorecki KL, Yu ASL, Brenner BM, eds. The kidney. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier, 640-688.
  18. Barrett A.G., Crimmin M.R., Hill M.S. and Procopiou P.A. (2010)., Heterofunctionalization catalysis with organometallic complexes of calcium, strontium and barium., In Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, The Royal Society, 466(2116), 927-963.
  19. Dauwe T., Snoeijs T., Bervoets L., Blust R. and Eens M. (2006)., Calcium availability influences lead accumulation in a passerine bird., Animal biology, 56(3), 289-298.
  20. Jamakala O. and Rani U.A. (2012)., Protective Role of Trace Elements Against Cadmium-Induced Alterations in the Selected Oxidative Stress Enzymes in Liver and Kidney of Fresh Water Teleost., Oreochromis mossambicus (Tilapia). Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci., 4(2), 303-310.
  21. Katz A.K., Glusker J.P., Beebe S.A. and Bock C.W. (1996)., Calcium ion coordination: a comparison with that of beryllium, magnesium, and zinc., Journal of the American Chemical Society, 118(24), 5752-5763.
  22. Westerhausen M., Langer J., Krieck S., Fischer R., Gorls H. and Kohler Top M. (2013). Organomet. Chem., 45(5), 29-72., undefined, undefined
  23. Prasanthi R.P.J., Reddy G.H., Devi C.B. and Reddy G.R. (2005)., Zinc and Calcium Reduce lead Induced Perturbations in the Aminergic System of Developing Brain., Biometals, 18(6), 615-626.
  24. Hille B. (2001)., Ion Channels of Excitable Membranes., 3rd edn. Sinauer, Sunderland.
  25. Cheng R.C., Tikhonov D.B. and Zhorov B.S. (2010)., Structural modeling of calcium binding in the selectivity filter of the L-type calcium channel., European Biophysics Journal, 39(5), 839-853.
  26. Ndahi N.P., Fugu M.B., Waziri I. and Geidam Y.A. (2017)., Effect of Mechanochemically Synthesized Copper (II) and Silver (I) Complexes on Some Cephalosporin Resistance Bacteria., International J. of Innovative Research and Development., 6(7), 262-269.
  27. Waziri I., Mala G.A., Fugu M.B., Isa B. and Umaru U. (2017)., Synthesis, Spectral Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of Some Metal Complexes of Mixed Antibiotics., Chemistry Research J., 2(2), 46-52.
  28. Liu X.W., Li J., Li H., Zheng K.C., Chao H. and Ji L.N. (2005)., Synthesis, characterization, DNA-binding and photocleavage of complexes [Ru (phen) 2 (6-OH-dppz)] 2+ and [Ru (phen) 2 (6-NO2-dppz)] 2+., Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 99(12), 2372-2380.
  29. Oladipo M.A., Woods JAO. and Odunola O.A. (2005)., Synthesis, Vibrational Spectra and Magnetic Properties of Cobalt (II), Nickel (II) and Copper (II) Complexes of Barbituric Acid., Science Focus, 10(1), 49-52.
  30. He X.Q., Lin Q.Y., Hu R.D. and Lu X.H. (2007)., Synthesis, Characterization and DNA-Binding Studies on Lu(III) and Ce(III) Complexes Containing Ligand of N-phenyl-2-pyridinecarboxamide., Spectrochimica Acta Part A, 68(1), 184-190.
  31. Lawal A., Ayanwale P.A., Obalaye J.A., Rajee A.O., Babamale H.F. and Lawal M. (2017)., Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Studies of Mixed Ligands Nicotinamide-Trimethoprim Complexes., International J. of Chemical Material and Environmental Research, 4(1), 97.