International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Effect of pH on the extraction of Silver from X-ray films using Red mangrove Bark Ash Solution

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
  • 2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Science, Port Harcourt Polytechnic, Rivers State, Nigeria

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 8, Issue (3), Pages 11-15, March,18 (2018)


This work investigated the effect of change in pH of Red Mangrove Ash Bark Solution (RMBAS) as stripping solution for the extraction of Silver from waste X ray films. using Four sets of Mangrove bark ash, 10, 20, 50, 70 and 100g were weighed and each dissolved in 500 ml of de-ionised water and left to homogenize for 48 hours before filtration, these solutions were alkaline tested to be alkaline. Another set of six solutions were prepared from the100g solution with pH values adjusted to acidic and neutral by 1 M HCl acid (pH 2.5,3.5,4.0, 5.0 6.0 7.5). Waste X ray films (cut into pieces) were kept in each solution in a water bath at 60OC and stirred at intervals for 1 hour until the films appeared clean and free from the dark spots. The stripping solutions were analysed for Silver using Solar Thermo Atomic Adsorption Spectrometer (Flame AAS) model S4- 71096. Results obtained showed that pH of the stripping solutions affected the extraction of Silver from the waste X ray films. Silver was recovered more as Ag+ than as Ag(OH)2+. Higher concentrations of Ag+(28.50 -13.36mg/kg) was recorded for the acidic stripping solutions than the alkaline (3.94 mg/kg) or neutral solutions (8.72-5.30mg/kg). Amount of recovered Silver ion decreased as the pH of the solution increased. Therefore, more Silver was extracted as the ion; Ag+ by the acidic RMBAS solution with pH 2.5 -5.0 .Higher concentrations of RMBAS had previously been confirmed to strip Silver from photographic wastes in the complex ion form, Ag(OH)2+. This work has therefore established that under same stripping conditions, higher concentrations of acidic RMBAS extract Silver as Ag+ rather than, Ag (OH)2+ from waste X ray films.


  1. Dahne W. and Schriftenr (1990)., Great Divide Mountain Bike Route., 63, 231-247.
  2. Grant H. (1979)., Modern Photographic processing., John Wiley and sons, New York, 1. ISBN -13: 978-0471042860
  3. Masebinu S.O. and Muzenda E. (2014)., Review of Silver Recovery Techniques from Radiographic effluent and X-ray film waste., Proceedings of the world congress on engineering and computer science, October San Francisco, USA, 2, 22-24.
  4. Arslan V., Ucurum M., Vapur H. and Bayat O. (2010)., Recovery of Silver from waste radiographic films by chemical leaching., Asian Journal of Chemistry, 23(1), 67-70.
  5. Nakiboğlu N., Toscali D. and NİSLİ G. (2003)., A novel silver recovery method from waste photographic films with NaOH stripping., Turkish Journal of Chemistry, 27(1), 127-133.
  6. Ajiwe V.I.E. and Anyadiegwu I.E. (2000)., Recovery of Silver from Industrial Waste, Cassava Solution Effect., Sep. Purif. Technol., 18(2), 89-92.
  7. Orubite-Okorosaye K. and Jack I.R. (2011)., Recovery of silver from waste x-ray films using plantain peels ash solution., International journal of physical science, 3(1), 116-120.
  8. Orubite K.O. and Chioma Donubari Don-Lawson (2016)., Red Mangrove ash as extractant for Silver in photographic wastes., Journal of Scientific Research and Studies, 3(3), 61-67.
  9. George D.M.C., Waribo H.A., Orubite-Okorosaye K. and Bills U.S. (2014)., Determination of Potassium ion concentration in Red Mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) bark aqueous extract (rmbae) in buffer media., Scholars research library. Arch. Appl. Sci. Res, 6(6), 61-66.
  10. Urszula Doma'nska and Anna Rekawek (2009), Journal of Solution Chemistry, 38, 739-775. DOI 10.1007/s10953-009-9402-7, undefined, undefined
  11. Orubite K.O. and Jack I.R. (2012)., Estimation of Silver content in some photographic wastes., Am. J. Sci. Ind. Res., 3(6), 390-394.
  12. Fetouhi B., Belarbi H., Benabdellah A., Kasmi-Mir S. and Kirsch G. (2016)., Extraction of the heavy metals from the aqueous phase in ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate by N-salicylideneaniline., Journal of Material Environmental Science, 7(3), 746-754.
  13. Shalkh S.M., Khan Z.S. and Ade A.B. (2010)., Effect of pH on metal extraction from Bauxite ore of Thiobacillus Ferrooxidans., Journal of Scientific Research, 2(2), 403-406.
  14. Onojake M.C., Obi G. and Osakwe J.O. (2015)., Banana peel as a low cost adsorbent for the removal of Ni2+, Cu2+ and Fe2+ from industrial effluents., Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria, 40(2), 59-62.
  15. Okwunodulu F.U., Odoemelam N.O. and Eddy N.O. (2015)., Temperature and pH influence in sequesting Cd (II), Ni (II) and Pb (II), ions from synthetic waste water using fluted pumpkin seed coat., Proceedings of the 38th annuaual International conference, workshop and exhibition of the Chemical Society of Nigeria, 6-11 Sept, 265-274.
  16. Chuku U.J., Anyanwu C. and Orubite K.O. (2016)., Effect of sulphate and nitrate ion on the extraction of copper (11) metal ions from aqueous media using 2, 2,- Trichloro-1- (5-Hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-Pyrazol-4-yl) ethanone in chloroform., Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria, 41(1), 43-48.
  17. Obi (2015)., Removal of lead from aqueous solution with Vernonia Amygdalina stem biomass., Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria, 40(2), 41-44.
  18. Sidi M., Nwobi C. and Dambatta A.H. (2017)., An investigation into the radiological waste management of selected centers in Kano metropolis, Nigeria., West African Journal of Radiology, 24(1), 20-24.
  19. Oyekale A.S. and Oyekale T.O. (2017)., Healthcare waste management practices and safety indicators in Nigeria., BMC public health, 17(1), 740.
  20. Ronald C.S. and Hansford T. (1988)., Essentials and soil amendments for plants; sources and use for agriculture., Technol. Eng., (1017-1021), 9-12.
  21. Husain Asif (2017)., Theoretical Basis of Analysis: Complexometric Titrations, pharmacy e- book (pharmaceutical Analysis)., Edition: First, Publisher: NISCAIR, New Delhi, 32.
  22. Jenke D., Zietlow D. and Sadain S. (2004)., Leaching of organic acids from irradiated EVA plastic as a function of solution pH and polarity., PDA journal of pharmaceutical science and technology, 58(1), 24-31.