International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Processing of Elephant Dung and its Utilization as a Raw Material for Making Exotic Paper

Author Affiliations

  • 1 Department of Environmental Science,Lahore College for Women University,Jail road,Lahore,PAKISTAN

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 4, Issue (8), Pages 94-103, August,18 (2014)


Paper is one of the most in demand commodities of the world. Excessive deforestation has led to scarcity of wood resources,and it is needed to conserve them to protect the integrity of the ecosystem. The pulp and paper scientists are continuously struggling for non-wood raw materials that can be pulped in to exotic papers of high value. In the present study, an attempt was made to investigate the potential of elephant dung as a non-conventional raw material to make exotic paper. For this purpose, elephant dung was dried under sun for 4-5 hours and then in oven at 105°C for 30 min. The dung sample was then cooked by chemithermomechnical (CTMP), semi-chemical and chemical soda-anthraquinone pulping processes in different experimental trials by varying the alkali dose. The papers were then tested for different physical and optical properties to estimate the quality of the elephant dung paper. In the current study, the optimum cooking conditions to make elephant dung paper in terms of maximum properties was 14.0% NaOH and 0.5% Anthraquinone (AQ) on o.d.p. Different type of exotic papers can be produced from elephant dung such as writing sheets, diaries, scrap books and greeting cards in a wide variety of styles and colors that could attract the attention of tourists and art lovers; resulting in revenue generation that could be used for the betterment of elephants and their owners.


  1. Diesen M., World paper markets, Papermaking Science and Technology, Economics of the Pulp and Paper Industry, 1(1), 65-66 (1998)
  2. Feng Z. and Alen R.J., Soda AQ pulping of wheat straw, Appita Journal, 54(2), 217-220 (2001)
  3. Young J., Non-wood raw material for paper-making, Pulp and Paper, 66(7), 9 (1992)
  4. Svenningsen N., Visvanathan C., Malinen R. and Patankar M., Cleaner product in the pulp and paper industry: Technology fact sheets, Asian Institute of Technology and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 1-35 (1999)
  5. Rezayati C.P., Mohammadi R.J., Hashemi S.J. and Kazemi N.S., Influence of dimethyl formamide pulping of bagasse on pulp properties, Bioresource Technology, 97(18), 2435–2442 (2006)
  6. Jacobs R.S., Pan W.L., Fuller W.S. and Ms Kean W.T., Genetic and environmental influences on the chemical composition of Washington State wheat straw, Proceedings of the TAPPI Pulping Conference, TAPPI Press, 2(1), 839-846 (1999)
  7. Graham M.D., Wren S. and Adams W.M., An Assessment of Elephant-Compatible Livelihoods: Trials of Beekeeping, Chilli Farming and the Production of Dung Paper in Laikipia,Kenya, 3(1) (2009)
  8. Broch J.F., Educational Use of Elephant Dung, Journal of the International Zoo Educators Association, 47(11), 7-11(2011)
  9. Meissner H.H., Spreeth E.B., De Villers P.A., Pietersen E.W., Hugo T.A. and Terblanche B.F., Quality of food and voluntary intake by elephants as measured by lignin index, South African Journal of Wildlife Research, 20(3), 104-110 (1990)
  10. Roehrs J.M., Brockway C.R., Ross D.V., Reichard T.A. and Ullrey D.E., Digestibility of timothy hay by African elephants, Zoo Biology, 8(1), 331-337 (1989)
  11. Cavendish M., Mammalian Anatomy; An illustrated guide, 63-65 (2010)
  12. Blanc J.J., Barnes R.F.W., Craig G.C., Dublin H.T., Thouless C.R., Douglas-Hamilton I. and Hart J.A., African Elephant Status Report 2007: An Update from the African Elephant Database, IUCN Species Survival, (2007)
  13. Graham M.D., Wren S. and Adams W.M., An Assessment of Elephant-Compatible Livelihoods: Trials of Beekeeping, Chilli Farming and the Production of Dung Paper in Laikipia, Kenya, 3(1), (2009)
  14. T 210 cm-03, Sampling and testing of wood pulp shipments for moisture, (2003)
  15. T 203 cm-99, Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma- cellulose in Pulp, TAPPI, (2009)
  16. T 222 om-02, Acid Insoluble lignin in wood and pulp, TAPPI, (2002)
  17. SCAN-C 26:67, Formation of hand sheets, Scandinavian Pulp, Paper and Board Testing Committee,(1967)
  18. T 452 om-08, Brightness of pulp, paper and board, TAPPI,(2008)
  19. ISO 2471, Paper and board-determination of opacity (paper backing) –Diffuse reflectance method, International Organization for Standardization, (1998)
  20. ASTM E313, Standard Practice for Calculating Yellowness and Whiteness Indices from Instrumentally Measured Color Coordinates, (2012)
  21. SCAN–P 7:75, 1995, Thickness, micron, Scandinavian Pulp, Paper and Board Testing Committee, (1995)
  22. SCAN–P 6:75, Grammage of paper and board, Scandinavian Pulp, Paper and Board Testing Committee,(1995)
  23. T 411 om-97, Bulk of paper. TAPPI, (1997)
  24. T 403 om-02, Burst index of paper and paperboard,TAPPI, (2008)
  25. T 414 om-88, Internal Tearing Resistance of paper, TAPPI,(1998)
  26. T 404 cm-92, Tensile strength of paper, TAPPI, (1992)
  27. Nieschlag H.J., Nelson G.H. and Wolff J.A., Perdue R.E., A search for new fiber crops, TAPPI,43(1), 193-201(1960)
  28. Potucek F. and Miklik J., Displacement washing of kraft pulp cooked from a blend of hardwoods, Chemical Paper.,64(2), 147 -153 (2009)
  29. Scott W.E., Dearth L.R. and Jordan B.D., Optical properties of paper, Pulp and Paper Manufacture, 9(1),152-191 (1992)
  30. Horn R.A., Progress in paper recycling, Paper Trade Journal, 4(2), 76 (1975)