International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Assesment on the Effect of pH on the Soil of Irrigated Farmlands of Kaduna Metropolis Nigeria

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Applied Science, College of Science and Technology, Kaduna Polytechnic, NIGERIA
  • 2Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Bayero University, Kano, NIGERIA

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 3, Issue (12), Pages 1-5, December,18 (2013)


The aim of this research work is to assess the level of pH in the soil of irrigated farmlands of Kaduna metropolis using PH meter. It was found that Samples obtained from Nasarawa and Kawo (pH = 5.8) were the lowest pH in the samples analyzed. These were similar to the pH of the control site Rigachikun with pH = 5.8 (acidic). Sample from Kurmin mashi had the highest pH value (pH = 8.5) and is alkaline. This revealed that most of the soils from the irrigation sites were acidic with the exception of samples from Unguwan Dosa and Kurmin mashi. It was also obtained from the ANOVA p = 0.0000 < 0.05 which shows that there is significant differences in the pH of soil across the various sampling sites. The real differences of soil pH was further analyzed by a post-hoc test using the Duncan Multiple range test with samples from Kawo, Nasarawa,Kinkinau and Rigasa were the least soil PH. In the second homogeneous subgroup there is Makera, Malali, Badiko, Barnawa, Kakuri, Kudenda, Danmani, etc. while the highest soil pH fall in the third subgroup which include samples from Uuguwan Dosa and Kurmin Mashi. The absorption and accumulation of heavy metals in plant tissues depend upon soil PH and nutrient availability which in turn increase the mobility of heavy metals. This variation in soil PH is due to excessive usage of fertilizer such as NPK, urea, super pHospHate, manure, pesticides, herbicides and other agro chemicals as well as human activities and the use of waste water in irrigating the soil. As such resulting to an adverse effect on such agricultural areas.


  1. Mahmud M.I., Essential concepts of general chemistry, Alkausar printing and publishing CO. Ltd Kaduna Nigeria (2008)
  2. Chen X., Wright J., Conca J. and Peurrung, Effects of PH on heavy metal sorption on mineral Apatite, Environ sci and technology,31(3), 624631 (1997)
  3. Daniel B.B. and Edward A.K., Soil chemistry, Environmental science, John Wiley and son inc., USA, 135137 (1998)
  4. Ademoroti C.M.A., Soil, water and air environmental chemistry and texiocology, Foludex Press Ibadan, 1st Edition, 30-34 (1996)
  5. Gray C.W., McLanre R.G., Roberts A.H., Condron L.M., Sorption and desorption of cadmium from some New Zealand soils : Effect of pH and contact time, Australian Journal of soil Research, 36, 199216 (1998)
  6. Salam A.K. and Helmke P.A., The pH dependence of free ionic activities and total dissolved concentrations of copper and cadmium in soil solution, Groderma,83, 281291 (1998)
  7. Oliver D.P., Tiller K.G., Alston A.M., Cozens G.D., Merry R.H., Effect of soil pH and applied cadmium on cadmium concentration in wheat grain, Australian Journal of soil Research,36, 571583 (1998)
  8. Singh R., Singh B.R., Narwa R.P., Jeng A.S. and Almas A., Crop uptake and extractability of cadmium in soils naturally high in metals at different pH levels, Communications of soil science and plant Analysis, 26, 2123-2142 (1995)
  9. Evans L.J., Chemistry of metal retention by soilsEnvironmental science and Technology, 23, 10461056 (1989)
  10. Filius A., Streck T. and Richter J., Cadmium Sorption and desorption in limed topsoils as influenced by pH; Isotherms and simulated leaching, Journal of Environmental Quality, 27, 12-18 (1996)
  11. Mann S.S. and Ritchie G.S.P., Form of cadmium in sandy soil after amendment with soils of higher fixing capacity, soil science and plant Nutrition,87, 2329 (1995)
  12. Chlopecka A., Bacon J.R., Wilson M.J. and Kay J., Forms of cadmium, lead and zinc in contaminated soils in southwest Poland, Journal of Environmental Quality, 25,69-79 (1996)
  13. Vigerust E., Selmer Olsen A.R. Basis for metal limit relevant to sludge utilization. In: Director General science. Research and Developmental.Environmental Research programme. Elsier Applied science publishers, London and Newyork, 2641 (1985)
  14. Akan J.C., Abdurrahman F.I., Sodipo O.A. and Lange A.O., PHysicochemical parameter in soil and vegetable samples from Gongolon Agricultural Sites, Maiduguri, BornoState, Nigeria, Journal of American Science,6(12), 7887 (2010)
  15. Lal R., Sustanable Management of soil Resources in the Humid Tropic United Nations University Press, New York, USA, 610, 55 60 (1995)
  16. Radojevic M. and Bachkin N.V., Practical Environmental Analysis, Royal Society of Chemistry, Thomas Graham House, Cambridge, 180430 (1999)
  17. Tarradellas J., Bitton G., Russel D., (Eds), Soil Ecotoxicology, CRC Lewis publisher, New York (1996)
  18. Zampella M., Characterization of heavy metals in contaminated soils of the solofrana river valley South Italy Geoderma 117, 347 366 (2003)
  19. Uba S., Uzairu A., Harrison G.F.S., Balarabe M.L. and Okunola O.J., Assessment of heavy metals bioavailability in dumpsite of Zaria metropolis Nigeria, African Journal of Biotechnology, 7(2), 122130 (2008)
  20. Winterhalder M., Metals in the environment pollution Biology, Edmond, Alberta, UK, 381, 9 (1984)