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Green Synthesis, Characterization, and the Antibacterial Activity Study of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Using Lemon Peel

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Applied Chemistry Federal University Dutsin-Ma, Katsina State, Nigeria
  • 2Department of Applied Chemistry Federal University Dutsin-Ma, Katsina State, Nigeria

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 13, Issue (3), Pages 16-22, October,18 (2023)


The widespread use of synthetic materials for the synthesis of nanoparticles has led to an increase in environmental pollution. Hence, green synthesis has recently emerged as a sustainable alternative as it utilizes biodegradable materials like lemon peels. The present study aimed to examine the green synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles using lemon peels as a natural precursor. The nanoparticles were synthesized using a simple, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly method. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using various techniques, such as UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, and Particles Size Analysis using Zetasizer Nano series. The results indicated that zinc oxide nanoparticles with a size average of 48.77nm were synthesized using the method employed. Antibacterial studies of the synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles revealed excellent antibacterial activity against the gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria tested, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. The zones of inhibition for the gram-positive bacteria were 13mm at 20mg/ml and 15mm at 40mg/ml, while those for the gram-negative were 10mm at 20mg/ml and 12 mm at 40mg/ml. The study demonstrated the potential of lemon peel extract as a green, sustainable, and effective source for the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles with excellent antimicrobial activity. The results of this study contribute to the development of eco-friendly and sustainable nanotechnology with broad biomedical applications.


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