International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Determination of Bio-accumulated Cadmium, Chromium, Copper, Nickel and Lead in some common Vegetables and Quantification of Consumer Health Risk due to their long term dietary consumption

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Chemistry, Govt. Degree College, Bakhha Khera, Unnao, U.P., India

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 13, Issue (3), Pages 9-15, October,18 (2023)


Due to the ability of bio-accumulation, several plants selectively accumulate heavy metals in their edible parts via the soil-plants transfer mechanism. Regular intake of such metal contaminated vegetables as dietary component; heavy metals are deposited in human organs, sometimes beyond their safe limits that may initiate various human health implications. This study was undertaken to estimate the human health risk on regular consumption of five common vegetables- potato, onion, bottle gourd, pumpkin and spinach for long by the inhabitants of Rishikesh municipal area, Dehradun. The levels of studied metals in selected vegetable samples were determined on Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Based on these observed levels of metals, “the daily intake of metals” for the studied vegetables was computed. Finally, the health consequences of regular consumption of vegetables under study for long were quantified in terms of the consumer health risk index (HRI). The overall order of levels of tested metals in vegetables was: lead > chromium > copper > nickel >cadmium. The order of daily intake of metals (DIM) on regular consumption of studied vegetables was: spinach (1.828) > bottle gourd (1.747) > pumpkin (1.607) > potato (1.556) > onion (1.543). The human health risk index (HRI) was evaluated as - Pb (123.3-179.6) > Cd (80.75- 144.5) > Ni (9.14- 12.54) > Cu (4.57- 7.12) > Cr (0.252 - 0.405).


  1. Singh, Anita, Sharma, Rajesh Kumar, Agrawal, Madhoolika and Marshall, Fiona M. (2010)., Risk assessment of heavy metal toxicity through contaminated vegetables from waste water irrigated area of Varanasi, India., Tropical Ecology, 51(2S), 375-387.
  2. Agrawal, S. B, Singh, Anita, Sharma, R. K., Agrawal, M. (2007)., Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in vegetables: A threat to human life., Terrestrial and Aquatic Toxicology, 1(2), 13-22.
  3. Singh V.P. (2005)., Toxic Metals and Environmental Issues., Sarup & Sons, New Delhi.
  4. Amin, M. A., Rahman, M. E., Hossain, S., Rahman, M., Rahman, M. M., Jakariya, M., & Sikder, M. T. (2020)., Trace metals in vegetables and associated health risks in industrial areas of Savar, Bangladesh., Journal of Health and Pollution, 10(27), 200905.
  5. Rai, Prabhat Kumar, Lee Sang Soo, Zhang Ming, Tsang Yiv Fai and Kim Ki- Hyum, (2019)., Heavy metals in Food crops: Health risks, fate, mechanism and management., Environment International, 125, 365-385.
  6. Sharma, R. K., Agrawal, M., & Marshall, F. (2007)., Heavy metal contamination of soil and vegetables in suburban areas of Varanasi, India., Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 66(2), 258-266.
  7. Khan, M. U., Malik, R. N., & Muhammad, S. (2013)., Human health risk from heavy metal via food crops consumption with wastewater irrigation practices in Pakistan., Chemosphere, 93(10), 2230-2238.
  8. Fao, J. (1989)., Toxicological evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants., In Thirty Seventh Meeting of JECFA; WHO Food Additives Series (No. 28, p. 219).
  9. Additives, F. (2001)., Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.,
  10. Chary, N. S., Kamala, C. T., & Raj, D. S. S. (2008)., Assessing risk of heavy metals from consuming food grown on sewage irrigated soils and food chain transfer., Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 69(3), 513-524.
  11. Rattan, R. K., Datta, S. P., Chhonkar, P. K., Suribabu, K., & Singh, A. K. (2005)., Long-term impact of irrigation with sewage effluents on heavy metal content in soils, crops and groundwater—a case study., Agriculture, ecosystems & environment, 109(3-4), 310-322.
  12. Kulshrestha, S., Awasthi, A., & Dabral, S. K. (2012)., Studies on the assessment of toxic metals present in biological samples (Part-1)., International Journal of Research in Chemistry and Environment (IJRCE), 2(1), 195-199.
  13. American Public Health Association. (1926)., Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater., Vol. 6, American Public Health Association..
  14. United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Emergency, & Remedial Response. (1989)., Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: pt. A. Human health evaluation manual (Vol. 1)., Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, US Environmental Protection Agency.
  15. Jan, F. A. A. (2010)., Comparative Health Risk of Human Health Risks via Consumption of food crops grown on waste water irrigated soil (Peshawar) and relatively clean water irrigated soil (Lower Dir)., Journal of Hazardous Materials, 179(1-3), 612-621.
  16. USEPA (US Environmental Protection Agency). (1997)., Exposure Factors., Handbook, General Factors.
  17. IRIS, U. (2006)., United states, environmental protection agency, integrated risk information system.,
  18. Epa, U. (2001)., United States environmental protection agency., Quality Assurance Guidance Document-Model Quality Assurance Project Plan for the PM Ambient Air, 2, 12.
  19. US-EPA (2013)., Reference dose (RfD): Description and use in health risk assessments, Background Document 1A, Integrated risk information system (IRIS)., United States Environmental Protection Agency: Washington, DC, 15 March 2013; [http://www]
  20. Khan, M. U., Muhammad, S., & Malik, R. N. (2014)., Potential risk assessment of metal consumption in food crops irrigated with wastewater., Clean–Soil, Air, Water, 42(10), 1415-1422.
  21. Awashthi, S. K. (1999)., Prevention of food Adulteration Act no 37 of 1954., Central and State rules as amended for, 3.
  22. World Health Organization (2004)., Joint FAO/WHO Expert standards program codex Alimentation commission., Geneva: WHO.
  23. Arora, M., Kiran, B., Rani, S., Rani, A., Kaur, B., & Mittal, N. (2008)., Heavy metal accumulation in vegetables irrigated with water from different sources., Food chemistry, 111(4), 811-815.
  24. Singh, S., Zacharias, M., Kalpana, S., & Mishra, S. (2012)., Heavy metals accumulation and distribution pattern in different vegetable crops., Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, 4(10), 170-177.
  25. Guerra, F., Trevizam, A. R., Muraoka, T., Marcante, N. C., & Canniatti-Brazaca, S. G. (2012)., Heavy metals in vegetables and potential risk for human health., Scientia agricola, 69, 54-60.
  26. Kumar, A., & Seema, V. K. (2017)., Human health risk of heavy metals in vegetables grown in contaminated soil irrigated with sewage water., American Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, 4(4), 23-35.
  27. Kumar Vinod and Thakur Roushan K. (2018)., Health risk assessment of heavy metals via dietary intake of vegetables grown in wastewater irrigated areas of Jagjeetpur, Haridwar India., Archives of Agriculture and Environmental Science, 3(1), 73-80.
  28. Kulshrestha, Shail, (2021)., Soil –Plant Transfer of Heavy Metals in eight Winter Vegetables and its Impact on Consumer Health Risk due to their Dietary Intake., Poll Res., 40(3), 355-363.
  29. Ramteke, Shobhana, Sahu, Bharat Lal, Dahariya, Nohar Singh, Patel, Khageshwar Singh, Blazhev Borislav, Matini Laurent. (2016)., Heavy Metal Contamination of Vegetables., Journal of Environmental Protection, 7: 996-1004.
  30. Kulshrestha, Shail (2022)., Bio-accumulation of Heavy Metals in some North Indian Leafy Vegetables and Quantification of consumer health risk due to their dietary intake., Poll Res., 41(3), 980-988.
  31. Kamal, A.K.I., Islam, M.R., Hassan, M. et al. (2016)., Bioaccumulation of Trace Metals in Selected Plants within Amin Bazar Landfill Site, Dhaka., Environmental Processes, 3, 179-194.