International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Kinetic study and mechanistic elucidation for metformin oxidation by Mn(VII) in alkaline medium

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Chemistry, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheshwara College (Autonomous), Ujire-574 240, India
  • 2Department of Chemistry, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheshwara College (Autonomous), Ujire-574 240, India
  • 3Post Graduate Department of Studies in Chemistry, Karnatak University, Dharwad-580 003, India

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 12, Issue (2), Pages 53-63, June,18 (2022)


The kinetics and oxidation of an anti-diabetic drug, metformin using permanganate in alkaline media was studied spectrophotometrically by keeping 0.01moldm-3ionic strength. The oxidation among permanganate with metformin in NaOH media shows 1:6 stoichiometry (metformin: permanganate). The oxidation reaction is first order dependence in [permanganate ion] and less than unit order in MET and hydroxyl ion concentrations, respectively. When ionic strength of reaction medium is increased, the rate of the reaction also increased. The consequence of dielectric constant of the media and externally added products were also studied. A proper mechanism for oxidation was proposed. The main product of the title reaction was recognized using LC-MS technique. The various constants of the reaction concerned in various steps in the mechanism were computed. The activation constants and thermodynamic values are also evaluated by graphical method and discussed in detail.


  1. Setter, S.M., Iltz, J.L., Thams, J. and Campbell, R.K. (2003)., Metformin hydrochloride in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a clinical review with a focus on dual therapy., Clin. Therap., 25(12), 2991-3026.
  2. Susan, Z.Y., and Jack, A.Y., (2014)., Long-term Drug Treatment for Obesity: A Systematic and Clinical Review., JAMA, 311(1), 74-86. 281361.
  3. Ruggiero-Lopez, D., Lecomte, M., Moinet, G., Patereau, G., Lagarde, M. and Wiernsperger, N., (1999)., Reaction of metformin with dicarbonyl compounds. Possible implication in the inhibition of advanced glycation end product formation., Biochem. Pharmacol., 58(11), 1765-1773.
  4. Brackett, C.C., (2010)., Clarifying metformin, J. Am. Pharm. Assoc., 50(3), 407-410. 10.1331/JAPhA.2010.08090.
  5. Banerji, K.K., (1988)., Mechanism of the oxidation of organic sulphides by permanganate ion., Tetrahedron, 44. 2969-2975.
  6. Stewart, R., (1965)., Oxidation in Organic Chemistry., New York: Part A, K.B. Wiberg Ed, Academic Press.
  7. Lee, D.G., (1980)., The Oxidation of Organic Compounds by Permanganate Ion and Hexavalent Chromium., La Salle: IL.
  8. Simandi, L.I., (1993)., The Chemistry of Functional Groups., Chichester: Wiley.
  9. Lee, D. G., Lee, E. J., & Brown, K. C. (1987)., Phase transfer catalysis, new chemistry, catalysts and applications., In ACS symposium series (No. 326, p. 82).
  10. Simandi, L. I., Jaky, M., Savage, C. R., & Schelly, Z. A. (1985)., Kinetics and mechanism of the permanganate ion oxidation of sulfite in alkaline solutions. The nature of short-lived intermediates., Journal of the American Chemical Society, 107(14), 4220-4224.
  11. Farokhi, S. A. & Nandibewoor, S. T. (2016)., Mechanistic study. of oxidative transformation of hetero aromatic stimulant, 1, 3, 7-trimethyl uric acid by potassium permanganate in perchloric acid medium-A kinetic study., Journal of The Indian Chemical Society, 93(4), 427-435.
  12. Pol, P.D., Mahesh, R.T., and Nandibewoor, S.T., (2002)., Free radical intervention in the oxidation of nicotinamide by alkaline permanganate - A Kinetic study., J. Chem. Res., 11, 533-534. 103170899.
  13. Bolattin, M.B., Nandibewoor, S.T., and Chimatadar, S.A., (2017)., Influence of micellar aggregates on oxidative degradation of β-cyclodextrin by alkaline permanganate: a kinetic and mechanistic study of inclusion complex., J. Env. Chem. Eng., 7, 47-52. 2017.07.047.
  14. Jeffery, G.H., Bassett, J., Mendham, J. and Denny, R.C., (1996)., Vogel’s Text Book of Quantitative Chemical Analysis., Essex: 5th ed, ELBS Longman, U.K.
  15. Carrington, A. and Symons M.C.R. (1956)., Structure and Reactivity of Oxyanions of Transition Metals Part I. The Manganese Oxy-anions., J. Chem. Soc., 3373–3376.
  16. Hegde, R.N., Shetti, N.P. and Nandibewoor, S.T., (2009)., Kinetic and mechanistic investigations of oxidation of pentoxifylline drug by alkaline permanganate., Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 48, 7025-7031. 4145.
  17. Panari, R.G., Chougale, R.B., and Nandibewoor, S.T., (1998)., Oxidation of mandelic acid by alkaline potassium permanganate – A Kinetic Study., J. Phys. Org. Chem., 11, 448-454. (199807)11:7%3C448::AID-OC23%3E3.0.CO;2-A
  18. Farokhi, S.A., Kini, A.K. and Nandibewoor, S.T. (2002)., Oxidation of L-hydroxy proline by aqueous alkaline permanganate. A Kinetic Study., Inorg. Rect. Mech., 4, 67-76.
  19. Amis, E. S. (1966)., Solvent effects on reaction rates and mechanisms (No. 541.39)., Academic Press.
  20. Seregar, V.C., Hiremath, C.V. and Nandibewoor, S.T. (2006)., Palladium(II) catalysed oxidation of L-proline by heptavalent manganese in aqueous alkaline medium: a free radical intervention and decarboxylation., Tran. Met. Chem., 31, 541–548.
  21. Rangappa, K.S., Raghavendra, M.P., Mahadevappa, D.S., and Channegowda, D. (1998)., Sodium N-chlorobenzene sulfonamide as a selective oxidant for hexosamines in alkaline medium: a kinetic and mechanistic study., J. Org. Chem., 63, 531-536.