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Geochemistry of termite mounds in the sediment-hosted lead-zinc mining District of Yolo, Gongola sub-basin: A guide for lead-zinc exploration in the Upper Benue Trough, Nigeria

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Geology, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola P.M.B. 2076, Yola – Nigeria
  • 2Department of Geology, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola P.M.B. 2076, Yola – Nigeria
  • 3Department of Geology, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola P.M.B. 2076, Yola – Nigeria

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 12, Issue (2), Pages 10-20, June,18 (2022)


Yolo lead-zinc mining district is an important area in Gongola Sub-basin of the Upper Benue Trough with paucity of rocks outcrops but abundant termite mounds. The termite mounds and their adjoining surface soils were analysed for Pb, Zn, Ti, Cu, Sb, As, U, Cr, Zr, and Li in an attempt to test their effectiveness in defining favorable areas for lead-Zinc mineralization in the Upper Benue Trough. The result shows general low elements content in both the termite mounds and adjoining soils, but with a clear trend of elevated concentration in termite mounds relative to their adjoining surface soils. The ore elements Pb, Zn together with Ti have the highest average concentrations of 503 ppb, 2136.5 ppb, and 6285 ppb in termite mounds compared to 356 ppb, 1662 ppb and 2250 ppb respectively in adjoining surface soils. Biological Absorption Coefficient (BAC), calculated to evaluate their degree of concentration, shows 141 values of Biological Absorption Coefficient within enrichment category with only 59 values in the depletion category. Although the values for elemental concentrations are generally low, the elevated concentration of the ore elements Pb, Zn and the associated trace elements in termite mounds relative to their adjoining soils, and the clustering of BAC values in the enrichment category together suggest that Pb, Zn and Ti in termite mounds can give an insight into favorable areas for lead-Zinc exploration in the Upper Benue Trough.


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