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Hydrochemical Facies and Ionic Ratios of Groundwater in Port Harcourt, Southern Nigeria

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Geology, University of Port Harcourt, NIGERIA

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 1, Issue (3), Pages 87-101, June,18 (2011)


A hydro geochemical facies and ionic ratios evaluation of groundwater in Port Harcourt City, Southern Nigeria has been carried out. Groundwater samples were analysed for their physical, chemical and microbiological properties. Besides of the major chemical compositions, ionic ratio (HCO3/Cl, Na/Ca, Ca/Cl, Mg/Cl and Ca/SO4) was used to delineate saline water intrusion. The analytical results present the abundance of the ions in the following order: Mg > Ca > Na > K = Cl > SO4 > HCO3 > NO3. Chloride is the dominant anion found in the groundwater of the study area. Piper trilinear diagram for the study area shows that there is a mixture of two types of water with variable concentrations of major ions. These are Ca – Mg – Cl – SO4 type and Na + K – Cl – SO4 type water. The second water type is also influenced by NO3. This means that groundwater in the area is mainly made up of mixtures of earth alkaline and alkaline metals and predominantly Cl- - SO4 2-water type. The quality of groundwater and the processes that control the concentration of major constituents is very necessary. Therefore, it is very imperative that adequate hydro chemical knowledge be improved, in the study area, owing to the hydro geological heterogeneity in order to evaluate the hydro chemical characteristics, determine the ionic interactions as well as the hydro geochemical facies distribution in the area. Achieving these aims will establish a basis for developing an appropriate monitoring programme and therefore improved management of the groundwater resources of the area.


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