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A review of obstacles facing reversal of vascular calcification

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Biomedical, Industrial and Human Factors Engineering, Wright State University,Dayton, OH 45435 USA
  • 2Department of Biomedical, Industrial and Human Factors Engineering, Wright State University,Dayton, OH 45435 USA

Int. Res. J. Medical Sci., Volume 7, Issue (2), Pages 6-8, May,28 (2019)


Cardiovascular disease (CVD) refers to several types of conditions that affect the heart and blood vessels.CVD is the leading cause of death in the world and is often characterized by pathological vascular calcification, which has been recognized as a major risk factor for various cardiovascular events including heart failure, pulmonary hypertension (PTH), and death in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. To date, there are no therapies to reverse medial or intimal calcification. In this mini-review we aim to shed light on the relationship between macrophages, osteoclasts, and vascular calcification.


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