International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Effects of Escherichia coli Infection on Some Serum and Urine Biochemical Parameters in Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Patients

Author Affiliations

  • 1 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Amassoma, P.M.B. 071, Bayelsa State, NIGERIA

Int. Res. J. Medical Sci., Volume 3, Issue (5), Pages 6-10, May,28 (2015)


The changes in some serum and urine biochemical parameters in Escherichia coli infected premenopausal and postmenopausal patients were studied. Blood specimens as well as early morning midstream urine specimens were collected from forty premenopausal patients aged 13-15 years, forty postmenopausal patients aged 45-60 years and twenty control subjects with no evidence of Escherichia coli infection aged 20-40 years. These specimens were collected into plain (non anticoagulated) and sterile universal bottles respectively. The following blood biochemical parameters: creatinine, total protein, albumin, globulin and C-reactive protein were quantitatively measured. The results showed significant differences of C-reactive protein in both the premenopausal and postmenopausal patients as compared with the control subjects while the other blood biochemical parameters: creatinine, total protein, albumin and globulin showed no significant differences. The urine dipstick results showed positive protein reaction in 30% of the premenopausal patients, 70% of the postmenopausal patients and 0% of the control subjects while positive nitrite reaction of 20%, 80% and 0% were obtained in the premenopausal patients, postmenopausal patients and control subjects respectively. The pH cut off mark of 8.0 showed 50%, 85% and 0% in the premenopausal patients, postmenopausal patients and control subjects respectively. However, the other urine biochemical parameters: blood, urobilinogen, bilirubin, ascorbic acid, ketones and glucose showed negative reactions in the premenopausal, postmenopausal and control subjects respectively. In conclusion, this study has shown that serum C-reactive protein concentration is significantly elevated in both the premenopausal and postmenopausal patients infected with Escherichia coli while dipstick urine test results for protein and nitrite are significantly altered in the postmenopausal patients only.


  1. Elizabeth A.M., Escherichia coli, In: Concise Medical Dictionary, 6th edition, Oxford university press, New York, 241 (2003)
  2. Nicolle L.E., Uncomplicated urinary tract infection in adults including uncomplicated pyelonephritis, Urol. Clin. North Am., 35(1), 1-12 (2008)
  3. Dielubanza E.J. and Schaeffer A., Urinary tract infections in women, The Med. Clin. of North Am., 95(1), 27- 41 (2011)
  4. Al-Achi and Antoine, An Introduction to Botanical Medicines: history, science, uses and dangers, Westport, conn, preager publishers, 126(2008)
  5. Wilson J. Topley and Wilsonís, Principles of Bacteriology, Virology and Immunity: in 4 volumes (8.ed.ed.) London, Arnold, 198 (1990)
  6. Cheesbrough M, Examination of urine In: Textbook of Monica Cheesbrough eds, District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries (part 1), Low price edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 105-115(1999)
  7. Lane D.R. and Takha S.S., Diagnosis and management of urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis. Emer. Med. Clin. of North Am., 29(3), 539-52 (2011)
  8. Colgan R and Williams M, Diagnosis and treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis, Am. Fam. Phy., 84(7), 771-6 (2011)
  9. Woodford H.J and George J, Diagnosis and management of urinary infections in older people, Clin. Med. (London, England), 11(1), 80-3 (2011)
  10. Salvatore S., Salvatore S, Catton, E., Siesto G. Serati M., Sorice P and Torella M, Urinary tract infections in women, Eur. J. Obs., Gyn. and Rep. Bio., 156(2), 131-6 (2011)
  11. Henry R.J., Quantitative in vitro determination of creatinine in serum, plasma or urine In: Textbook of Clinical Chemistry, Principles and Tecnics, 2nd edition, Harper and Row, 529 (1974)
  12. Weichselbaum T.E., Quantitative measurement of total protein in serum, Am. J. Clin. Pathol,16, 40 (2004)
  13. Grant G.H., Amino acids and proteins In: Textbook of Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry, 3rd edition, W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 328-329 (2004)
  14. Doumas B.T., Watson W.A and Biggs H.G., Measurement of serum albumin, Clin. Chem. Acta., 31, 87 (2004)
  15. Cynthia C.C., Ruth L.K. and Barbara J.B., Plasma globulin In: Textbook of Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedure, 2nd edition, W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 540-541 (1993)
  16. Kari P., Quantitative measurement of C-reactive protein, J. Clin. Lab. Inv., 46, 606-607 (2007)
  17. Carter I.J, Tomson R.V.C, Stevens E.P. and Lamb J.E., Does urinary infection cause proteinuria or microalbuminuria?, A systematic review, Nephrol. Dial. Trans., 21, 3031-3037 (2006)
  18. James G.P., Paul K.I and Fuller K.B., Urinary nitrite and urinary tract infection, Am. J. Clin. Pathol., 70, 671-8 (1978)
  19. Barbin G.K., Thorley J.D and Reinarz J.A., Simplified microscopy for rapid detection of significant bacteriuria in random urine specimens. J.Clin. Microbiol.7, 286-9 (1978)
  20. Scheifele D.W and Smith A.L. Hometesting for recurrent bacteriuria using nitrite strips, Am. J. Dis. Child, 132, 46-8 (1978)
  21. Simerville J.A., Maxted W.C and Pahira J.J., Urinalysis: a comprehensive review, Am. Fam. Phy.71,1153-1162 (2005)