International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Molecular Study on Multidrug Resistant of Salmonella Enterica Isolated from patient with Enteric Fever in Najaf - Province/Iraq

Author Affiliations

  • 1College of Sciences, University of Babylon, IRAQ
  • 2 College of Medicine, University of Koffa, IRAQ
  • 3 College of Sciences, University of Koffa, IRAQ

Int. Res. J. Medical Sci., Volume 2, Issue (7), Pages 12-16, July,28 (2014)


Minimum Inhibitory concentration of four antimicrobials used in treatment of Salmonella typhi invasive infections were determined by two different methods , the agar dilution method and HiComb kit. For Ampicillin MIC was more than 32 µg/ml. Chloramphenicol MIC ranged between (128-256) µg/ml. On other hand MIC of nalidixic acid was varied from (0.5 – 2) µg/ml. Regarding ciprofloxacin MIC range from (0.001-0.01) µg/ml. Molecular study was accomplished first by the extraction of DNA from S. typhi isolates and second by using PCR technique to amplify seven different primers to determine the presence of integrons. Genes were int, intI, for integrase gene where the first sequence gave (30%) positive while second sequence showed (20%). Sul genes were also used, the first sequence of SulI gene showed (15%) while second one gave no positive result , while sul-2 gene recorded (50%) positivity. Qac genes located on 3 end of class-I integron were also investigated , qacE did not show any positive result, while the mutant type qacE recorded high prevalence among S. typhi isolates. Finally four pairs of primers targeted the detection of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBLs) genes which comprised blaTEM, blaSHV, blaOXA, and blaCTX-M. Amplification with the first three primers did not yield DNA products, while the fourth showed 50% positivity.


  1. Udeze A., Adulrahman F., Okonko I. and Aniijuwon I., Seroprevalence of Salmonellatyphi and Salmonellaparatyphi among the first year students of University of Ilorin- Nigeria, Middle East journal of scientific research, 6(3), 257-262 (2010)
  2. Cooke F. and Wain J., The emergence of antibiotic resistance in typhoid fever, Travel Med Infect Dis., 2(2), 67-74 (2004)
  3. Kumar R., Gupta N. and Shalini N., Multidrug-resistant typhoid fever, Indian J Pediatr., 74(1), 39-42 (2007)
  4. Randall L.P., Cooles S.W., Osborn M.K., Piddock L.J. and Woodward M.J., Antibiotic resistance genes, integrons and multiple antibiotic resistance in thirty-five serotypes of Salmonella enterica isolated from humans and animals in the UK, J Antimicrob Chemother, 53, 208-16 (2004)
  5. Gillings M.R., HolleyM.P. and Stokes H.W., Evidence for dynamic exchange of qac gene cassettes between class 1 integrons and other integrons in freshwater biofilms, FEMS Microbial Lett., 296(2), 282-8 (2009)
  6. Abd – Al Nafia Y.S. and Salman S.A., Bacteriological and chemical study on Drinking water tanks in some quarters of Baghdad city, Nahrein Univer. Journal, 14(1), 38-45 (2011)
  7. Andrews J., Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations, J Antimicrob. Chemother.,45, 5-16 (2010)
  8. Mulvey M., Boyd D., Ng L., Lombos M., Ciebin B., Li A. and Stuart S., First Canadian Salmonellaenterica Serovar typhi Isolate Harboring an Integron, Antimicrob. Agents. Chemother.,48(2), 689–690 (2004)
  9. Rao S., Maddox C., Dalen P., Lanka S. and Weigel R., Diagnostic accuracy of class 1 integrons PCR method in detection of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella isolates from swine production systems, J. clinical Microbio.,46(3), 916-920 (2008)
  10. Byrne-Bailey K.G., Gaze W.H., Kay P., Boxall B.A., Hawkey P.M. and Wellington E.M.H., Prevalence of Sulfonamide Resistance Genes in Bacterial Isolates from Manured Agricultural Soils and Pig Slurry in the United Kingdom, Antimicob Agents Chemother.,53(2), 696–702 (2009)
  11. Bischoff K., White D., Hume M., Poole T. and Nisbet D., The chloramphenicol resistance gene cmlA is disseminated on transferable plasmids that confer multiple-drug resistance in swine Escherichiacoli. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 243, 285–291 (2005)
  12. Mahmud A., Mahmud M. and Hakim M., Reduced Susceptibility to Fluoroquinolone in Salmonellatyphi and Some Molecular Characteristics of Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Indigenous Isolates, Bangladesh Journal of Microbiology,27(2), 38-41 (2010)
  13. Parry C., Vin H., Chinh N., Wain J., Campbell J., Hien T., Farrar J. and Baker S., The Influence of Reduced Susceptibility to Fluoroquinolones in Salmonellaentericaserovar typhi on the Clinical Response to Ofloxacin TherapyPlos neglected tropical diseases, 5(6), e1163 (2011)
  14. Ercis S., Erdem Hasgelik G. and Gur D., Nalidixic acid resistance in Salmonella strains with decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin isolated from humans in Turkey, Jpn.J Infec.Dis., 59, 117-119 (2006)
  15. Cebrian L., Sirvent E. and Rodriguez Diaz J.C., Characterization of Salmonellaspp. mutants produced by exposure to various fluoroquinolones, Int J Antimicrob Agents, 22, 134–9 (2003)
  16. Reyes A., Bello H., Dominguez M., Mella S., Zemelman R. and Gonzalez G., Prevalence and types of class 1 integrons in amino glycoside-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from several Chilean hospitals, J Antimicrob Chemother., 51, 317- 21 (2003)
  17. Mathai E., Grape M. and Kronvall G., Integrons and multidrug resistance among Escherichia coli causing community-acquired urinary tract infection in southern India, APMIS,112, 159-64 (2004)
  18. Kazama H., Hamashima H., Sasatsu M. and Arai T., Characterization of the antiseptic-resistance gene qacE delta 1 isolated from clinical and environmental isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibriocholerae non-O1, FEMS Microbial Lett.,174, 379-84 (1999)
  19. Chuanchuen R., Khemtong S. and Padungtod P., Occurrence of Qac/Qac ED1genes and their crrelatin with class 1 integrons in Salmonellaenterica isolates from poultry and swine, Southeast Asian, J Trop. Med. Public Health,38(5), 855-862 (2007)
  20. Rotimi V.O., Jamal W., Pal T., Sovenned A. and Albert M.J., Emergence of CTX-M-15 type extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Salmonella spp. in Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates, J Med Microbiol., 57(7), 881-6 (2008)
  21. Sunde S., Prevalence and Characterization of class 1 and 2 integrons in Escherichiacoli isolated from meat and meat products of Norwegian origin, J. Microb. Chemo., 377, 1-6 (2005)
  22. Chang L., Lin H., Chang C. and Lu P., Increase incidence of calls 1 integrons in trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole –resistant clinical isolates of Sternotrophomonas maltophila, J. Antimicrob. Chemo., 59, 1038-1045 (2007)
  23. Hujer K., Hujer A., Hulten E., Bajaksouzian S., Adams J., Donskey C., Ecker D., Massire C., Eshoo M., Sampath R., Thomson J., Rather P., Craft D., FishbainJ., Ewell A., Jacobs M., Paterson D. and Bonomo1 R., Analysis of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter sp. Isolates from Military and Civilian Patients Treated at the Walter Reed Army Medical Center. Antimicrob Agents and Chemother, 50(12), 4114–4123 (2006)
  24. Bhattacharjii A., Sen M.R., Anupurba S., Prakash P. and Nath G., Detection of OXA-2 group extended-spectrumlactamase producing clinical isolates of Escherichiacolifrom India, J. Antimicrob. Chemother, Advance Access published (2007)
  25. Karami N. and Hannoun C., Colonization dynamics of ampicillin resistant Escherichiacoli in the infantile colonic micro biota, J. Antimicrob. Chemother., 62, 703–708 (2008)