International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Bilateral Middle Ear Atresia with Right Sided Microtia

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Anatomy, International Medical School, Management and Science University, MALAYSIA
  • 2Department of Anatomy, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati, INDIA

Int. Res. J. Medical Sci., Volume 2, Issue (1), Pages 1-3, January,28 (2014)


A dead female foetus presented normal left auricle and a small tag of tissue representing right auricle. CT scan revealed right sided absence of auricle and auditory canal and bilateral absence of middle ear. Foetal dissections presented right sided absence of musculocutaneous nerve with variation in the distribution of median nerve to muscles of arm.


  1. Sanchez O., Mendez J.R. and Gomez E. Clinico-epidemiologic study of microtia, Am J Med Genet,65(4), 291- 294 (1996)
  2. Poncet P., Bebear J.P. and Le-Grignou P., Agenesis of the ear:analytical study. Apropos of 150 cases, Ann Otolayngol Chir Cervicofac,100(6), 403-7 (1983)
  3. Meurman Y., Congenital microtia and meatal atresia, Arch Otolaryngol, 66, 443 (1957)
  4. Tolleth H., Artistic anatomy, dimensions, and proportions of the external ear, Clin Plast Surg, 5(3), 337-45 (1978)
  5. Adamson J.E., Horton C.E., Crawford H.H., The growth pattern of the external ear, Plast Reconstr Surg., 36(4), 466-70 (1965)
  6. Anupama Patil MD., 2001-01-02-16 Malformations of the external ear Patil (2001)
  7. Kountakis S.E., Helidonis E. and Jahrsdoerfer R.A., Microtia grade as an indicator of middle ear development in aural atresis, Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg,121(8), 885 (1995)
  8. Cremers C.W., et al. Congenital Aural Atresia. A New Subclassification and Surgical Management, Clin Otolaryngol.,9(2), 119-27 (1984)
  9. Forrester M.B., Merz R.D., Congenit Anom (Kyoto). Descriptive epidemiology of anotia and microtia, Hawaii, 1986-2002, 45(4), 119-24 (2005)
  10. Gary M. Shaw, Suzan L. Carmichael, Zhanna Kaidarova and John A. Harris, Epidemiologic characteristics of anotia and microtia in California, 1989-1997/Birth Defects Research part A: Clinical and Molecular teratology, 70(7), 472-475 (2004)
  11. Mastroiacovo P., Corchia C., Botto L.D., Lanni R., Zampino G., Fusco D. Epidemiology and genetics of microtia-anotia: a registry based study on over million births, J.Med Genet.,32(6), 453-7 (1995)
  12. Carey J.C., External ear. In: Stevenson R.E., Hall J.G., Goodman R.M., eds. Human Malformations and Related Anomalies. New York: Oxford University Press 193-219 (1993)
  13. Harris J., Kallen B. and Robert E., The epidemiology of anotia and microtia, J Med Genet.,33, 809-813 (1996)
  14. Oliveira C.A., Pinheiro L.C., Gomes M.R., External and middle ear malformations: autosomal dominant genetic transmission, Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol,98(10), 772-6 (1989)
  15. Goriin R.J.,ome facial syndromes, Birth Defects, 65 (1969)