International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Epidemiological Assessment of Onchocerciasis in Endemic Communities of UDI and IGBO ETITI Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria

Author Affiliations

  • 1Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, NIGERIA
  • 2 University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, NIGERIA
  • 3 Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, NIGERIA

Int. Res. J. Medical Sci., Volume 1, Issue (8), Pages 8-10, September,28 (2013)


Impact study of Onchocerciasis was carried out in Udi and Igbo-Etiti Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria using rapid assessment method (RAM) and skin biopsies for Onchocercal microfilaria (MF). Out of the 1362 subjects examined, 1158 (85%) were infected with Onchocerciasis. Individual Onchocercal signs recorded were microfilaria 498 (36.6%), leopard skin 486 (35%), nodules 756 (55.5%), visual impairment 534 (39.2%) and blindness rate of 54 (42%). Infection was independent of sex (P0.05), but dependent on age and location of the communities in relation to water bodies (r= 100, P0.05). Prevalence of infection among age groups and communities varied. Age group 60 years and above had the highest prevalence (97.5%) while among the communities, Nze ranked highest (93.0%) prevalence.


  1. World Health Organization, World Health Organization expert committee, third report series No. 752 Geneva (1987)
  2. Leuckart R.F., Filaria volvulus. In Andrew Hope Davidson Hygiene and disease of warm climates ed, Young J. London: Petland, 963 (1893)
  3. Schiller E.L., Onchocerciasis vector biology control (VBC), Trop Dis Pap., 3, 1-25 (1990)
  4. Opera K.N., Usip L.P. and Akpabio E.E., Transmission dynamics of Simulium damnosum in rural communities of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, J Vector Borne Dis., 45, 225-30 (2008)
  5. WHO, Status of onchocerciasis in APOC countries TDR/AFR/RP/951, Geneva (2008)
  6. Okonkwo P., Akpa A. Ihekwuba, Nwugbo D., Umeh R., Adibua S., Ezike V. and Ogbuokiri J., Studies Onchocerciasis in the forest savannah mosaic area of Nigeria, Investigation in Gbaragu, Oji River, Ann. Trop. Med. Parasit., 85, 617-23 (1991)
  7. WHO, Economic Impact of Onchocercal skin Disease (OSD), Report of a Multi Country Study, TDR Applied Field Research, World Health Organization, Geneva (1997)
  8. Connor D.H., Morrison N.E., Kerdel-Vegas F., Berkoff H.A., Johson F., Tunnifliffe R., Failing F.C., Hale L.N. and Lindquist K., Onchocerciasis. Onchocercal dermatitis, lymphadentitis, and elephantiasis, in the Ubangi territory, Hum Pathol., , 553-79 (1970)
  9. Nwoke BEB, The socio-economic aspects of human onchocerciasis in Africa: Present appraisal, J. Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol., 34, 37-44 (1990)
  10. Nwaorgu O.C., Ohaegbula A., Onweluzo I.A., ALO E.T., Nweke L.N., Agu M.L. and Emeh E., Results of large scale Onchocerciasis survey in Enugu State, Nigeria, J. Helmin thol., 68(2), 155-159 (1994)