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A Brief Introduction to Lasers and Applications: Scientific Approach

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Physics, Andhra Loyola College, Vijayawada, INDIA

Res. J. Material Sci., Volume 1, Issue (2), Pages 20-24, March,16 (2013)


Laser is a powerful source of light having extraordinary properties which are not found in the normal light sources like tungsten lamps and mercury lamps. The unique property of laser is that its light waves travel very long distances with a very little divergence. The two processes, namely, absorption and spontaneous emission, take place in a conventional light source, in case the atom, still in its turns to excited state, is struck by an outside photon having precisely the energy necessary for spontaneous emission, the outside photon is augmented by the one given up by the excited atom. Moreover, both the photons are released from the same excited state in the same phase, this process, called stimulated emission, is fundamental for laser action. Thus, the atom is stimulated or induced to give up its photon earlier than it would have done ordinarily under spontaneous emission. Different types of lasers are briefly explained. Laser radiation in various applications was made use of immediately after the first laser became operational. As a device, it is now used in medicine, astronomy, geodesy, metrology, chemistry, biology, spectroscopy, holography, power engineering, in various processes in engineering, as well as in communication technology, automation and remote control, in military technology, entertainment industry and art restorations. Industrial applications now include many new procedures, such as laser welding, drilling, cutting, annealing and sputtering. This paper deals with the study of fundamental aspects, properties and technological applications of lasers.


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