International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Toward a Learning Organization

Author Affiliations

  • 1Qurtuba University of Science and IT, Peshawar, Pakistan
  • 2CIIT, Vehari, Pakistan

Res. J. Management Sci., Volume 5, Issue (11), Pages 15-23, November,6 (2016)


This study was conducted to analyze and define learning capabilities that presently exist in organizations. It attempts to asses learning within the organization by measuring changes in organizational practices and employee performances. Besides other practices, the two widely used are training and development. These are reported by most of the research studies to be linked to organizational learning and employee performance. Snowball sampling procedure was used and 200 employees of four telecom companies were selected as participants of the study. Responses were collected through an adapted 5 points Likert Scale questionnaire. The range of the questionnaire was 1= strongly disagree to 5 strongly agree. The frequency and type of training and learning activities within target firms were identified and perceived employee performance was measured. Factor analysis, Pearson’s Correlation and multiple regressions were used for data analysis. The results showed that companies in telecom sector are struggling to provide an environment which is conducive to learning. The study attempted to explain that training is different from learning and individual learning contributes to organization learning.


  1. Ulrich D., Allen J., Brockbak W., Younger J. and Nyman M. (2009)., HR transformation., Building Human Resources from the Outside.
  2. Lonnqvist A., Algorta M. and Zeballos F. (2011)., Human resource and knowledge management: best practices identification., Measuring business excellence, 15(4), 71-80.
  3. Ooi K.B., Lin B., Tan B.I. and Yee-Loong Chong A. (2011)., Are TQM practices supporting customer satisfaction and service quality?., Journal of Services Marketing, 25(6), 410-419.
  4. Gupta B., Iyer L.S. and Aronson J.E. (2000)., Knowledge management: practices and challenges., Industrial Management and Data Systems, 100(1), 17-21.
  5. Allen J. and De Grip A. (2007)., Skill obsolescence, lifelong learning and labor market participation., Research Centre for education and the Labor Market (ROA), Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Maastricht University.
  6. Gnyawali D.R. and Stewart A.C. (2003)., A contingency perspective on organizational learning: integrating environmental context, organizational learning processes, and types of learning., Management Learning, 34(1), 63-89.
  7. Eraut M. (2000)., Non‐formal learning and tacit knowledge in professional work., British journal of educational psychology, 70(1), 113-136.
  8. Rosen S. (1972)., Learning and experience in the labor market., Journal of Human Resources, 326-342.
  9. Adeniyi O. (1995)., Staff training and development., Reading in Organizational Behaviour in Nigeria, Lagos, Maltho use Press Ltd, 159-167.
  10. Raymond A.N. (2010)., Employee training and development., New York: McGraw-Hill.
  11. Aragon M.I.B., Jiménez D.J. and Valle R.S. (2014)., Training and performance: The mediating role of learning., Business Research Quarterly, 17, 161-173.
  12. Huselid M.A. (1995)., The impact of human resource management practices on turnover, productivity, and corporate financial performance., Academy of management journal, 38(3), 635-672.
  13. Noe R.A. (2002)., Employee training and development., McGraw-Hill/Irwin Boston, MA.
  14. Drucker P.F. (1999)., Knowledge-worker productivity: The biggest challenge., California management review, 41(2), 79-94.
  15. Harnad S., Hanson S.J. and Lubin J. (1995)., Learned categorical perception in neural nets: Implications for symbol grounding., Symbol processors and connectionist network models in artificial intelligence and cognitive modelling: steps toward principled integration, 191-206.
  16. Mulili B.M. and Wong P. (2011)., Corporate governance practices in developing countries: The case for Kenya., International journal of business administration, 2(1), 14.
  17. Cyert R.M. and March J.G. (1963)., A behavioral theory of the firm., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 2.
  18. Daft R.L. and Weick K.E. (1984)., Toward a model of organizations as interpretation systems., Academy of management review, 9(2), 284-295.
  19. Isaacs W. and Senge P. (1992)., Overcoming limits to learning in computer-based learning environments., European Journal of Operational Research, 59(1), 183-196.
  20. Huber G.P. (1991)., Organizational learning: The contributing processes and the literatures., Organization science, 2(1), 88-115.
  21. Argyris C. (1989)., Strategy implementation: An experience in learning., Organizational Dynamics, 18(2), 5-15.
  22. Huff A.S. and Jenkins M. (2002)., Mapping strategic knowledge., Sage.
  23. Jyothibabu C., Farooq A. and Bhusan Pradhan B. (2010)., An integrated scale for measuring an organizational learning system., The Learning Organization, 17(4), 303-327.
  24. Argyris C. (1989)., Strategy implementation: An experience in learning., Organizational Dynamics, 18(2), 5-15.
  25. Aragon M.I.B., Jiménez D.J. and Valle R.S. (2013)., Training and performance: The mediating role of learning., Business Research Quarterly, 17, 161-173.
  26. Easterby‐Smith M., Crossan M. and Nicolini D. (2000)., Organizational learning: debates past, present and future., Journal of Management Studies, 37(6), 783-796.
  27. Warr P. (2002)., Psychology at work., Penguin UK.
  28. Fiol C.M. and Lyles M.A. (1985)., Organizational learning., The Academy of Management Review, 10 (4), 803-813.
  29. Greeno J.G. and Moore J.L. and Smith D.R. (1993)., Transfer of situated learning., American Psychological Association, 96-167.
  30. Glynn M.A., Lant T.K. and Milliken F.J. (1994)., Mapping learning processes in organizations: A multi-level framework linking learning and organizing., Advances in managerial cognition and organizational information processing, 5, 43-83.
  31. Anderson P. (1999)., Perspective: Complexity theory and organization science., Organization science, 10(3), 216-232.
  32. Monge P.R. (1987)., The network level of analysis., Handbook of communication science, 239-270.
  33. Markovsky B.N. (1998)., Social network conceptions of group solidarity., University of South Carolina - Columbia, 343-372.
  34. Weick K.E. (1976)., Educational organizations as loosely coupled systems., Administrative Science Quarterly, 1-19.
  35. Flanagin A.J., Monge P. and Fulk J. (2001)., The value of formative investment in organizational federations., Human Communication Research, 27(1), 69-93.
  36. Sfard A. (1998)., On two metaphors for learning and the dangers of choosing just one., Educational researcher, 27(2), 4-13.
  37. Holland C.P. and Light B. (1999)., A critical success factors model for ERP implementation., IEEE software, 16(3), 30.
  38. Monge P.R. and Contractor N.S. (2003)., Theories of communication networks., Oxford University Press, USA.
  39. Welbourne T.M., Johnson D.E. and Erez A. (1998)., The role-based performance scale: Validity analysis of a theory-based measure., Academy of management journal, 41(5), 540-555.
  40. Mathis R., John H. and Jackson (2009)., Human Resources Development (Track MBA Series/Terjemahan)., Jakarta: Prestasi Pustaka.
  41. Aguinis H. and Kraiger K. (2009)., Benefits of training and development for individuals and teams, organizations, and society., Annual review of psychology, 60, 451-474.
  42. McCloy R.A., Campbell J.P. and Cudeck R. (1994)., A confirmatory test of a model of performance determinants., Journal of applied psychology, 79(4), 493.
  43. Guest D.E. (1997)., Human resource management and performance: a review and research agenda., International journal of human resource management, 8(3), 263-276.
  44. Locke E.A. and Latham G.P. (1990)., A theory of goal setting and task performance., Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  45. Jayothibabu C., Ayesha F. and Paradhan B.B. (2010)., An integrated scale for measuring an organizational learning system., Journal of Management Development, 17 (4), 303-327.
  46. Marsick V.J. and Watkins K.E. (2001)., Informal and incidental learning., New directions for adult and continuing education, (89), 25-34.
  47. Teclemichael Tessema M. and Soeters J.L. (2006)., Challenges and prospects of HRM in developing countries: testing the HRM–performance link in the Eritrean civil service., The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 17(1), 86-105.
  48. Pakistan Department of Telecommunication (2013)., PTA annual report (2013-12)., ISBN: 978-969-8667-54-2.
  49. Kaiser H. F. (1974)., An index of factorial simplicity., Psychometrika, 39(1), 31-36.