International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Six-Sigma Application in the Hotel Industry: Is It Effective for Performance Improvement?

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Hotel Studies, Faculty of Tourism and Hotels, Sadat City University, EGYPT

Res. J. Management Sci., Volume 3, Issue (12), Pages 1-14, December,6 (2014)


Six-Sigma (6) is a quality improvement strategy that provides a clear roadmap for organizations to deliver nearly perfect products and services. After initial success in manufacturing organizations, Six-Sigma has gradually gained widespread application in service organizations, including hotels and lodging. Although the hotel industry has an increased interest in Six-Sigma implementation and many hotels have yielded tangible benefits from this approach, the literature is limited. Moreover, the relationship between Six-Sigma implementation and its performance improvement outcomes is a rarely examined subject in the hospitality context. Therefore, this study attempts to assess the effectiveness of Six-Sigma and examine its impacts on various performance measures of upscale hotels in Egypt, seeking for what values and benefits it brings to improve the overall performance. To achieve this objective, the researcher surveyed 123upscale hotels in Egypt. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS 18). The results indicated that only 31 percent of the respondent hotels are actively involved in a documented Six-Sigma project. A notable proportion of these hotels have less than three years experience with the Six-Sigma approach. This clearly illustrates that Six-Sigma is a relatively new approach within the Egyptian hotel industry. The findings indicated that Six-Sigma implementation is positively and significantly associated with the operational and competitive performance of the surveyed hotels. Hotels implementing Six-Sigma have achieved more benefits as compared to other hotels implementing other quality management programs (i.e. TQM and ISO 9001). Therefore, it seems advisable for Egyptian hotels to be involved in formal Six-Sigma projects in order to improve their overall performance.


  1. Linderman K., Schroeder R.G., Zaheer S. and Choo A.S., Six-Sigma: A Goal Theoretic Perspective, Journal of Operations Management, (21), 193- 203(2003)
  2. Snee R.D. and Hoerl R.W., Leading Six-Sigma, Prentice-Hall, ISBN: 0130084573, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. (2003)
  3. Alsmadi M. and Khan Z., Lean Sigma as the New Wave of Business Excellence: Literature Review and a Framework, In IEEE (Eds.), Proceeding of the Second International Conference on Engineering Systems Management and Applications, 54-61 (2010)
  4. Andersson R., Eriksson H. and Torstensson H., Similarities and Differences between TQM, Six-Sigma and Lean, The TQM Magazine, 18(3), 282-296 (2006)
  5. Dahlgaard J.J. and Dahlgaard-Park S.M., Lean Production, Six-Sigma Quality, TQM and Company Culture, The TQM Magazine, 18(3), 263-281 (2006)
  6. Schroeder R.G., Linderman K., Liedtke C. and Choo A.S., Six-Sigma: Definitionand Underlying Theory, Journal of Operations Management26,536-554 (2008)
  7. Snee R., Six-Sigma Improves both Statistical Training and Processes, Quality Progress, 33(10), 68-72 (2000)
  8. Antony J., Six-Sigma in The UK Service Organizations: Result from a Pilot Survey, Managerial Auditing Journal, 19(8), 1006-1013 (2004)
  9. Kumar S. and Bauer K., Exploring the Use of Lean Thinking and Six-Sigma in Public Housing Authorities, Quality Management Journal, 17(1), 29-46 (2010)
  10. Ansari A., Lockwood D., Thies E., Modarress B. and Nino J., Application of Six-Sigma in Finance: A Case Study, Journal of Case Research in Business and Economics, (3), 1-13 (2011)
  11. Udayai K., and Kumar P., Implementing Six-Sigma to Improve Hospital Discharge Process, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 3(11), 4528 (2012)
  12. Cho R., and Tina K. Better Processes Make Good Eats: Food Industry Can Benefit from Lean Six-Sigma Principles. Industrial Engineer,(36), (2014)
  13. Patil V.H., Kamlapur S.M. and Dhore M.L., Six-Sigma in Education: To Achieve Overall Excellence in the Field of Education, Information Technology: New Generations, 2(5), 10-12 (2014)
  14. Antony J., Antony F.J., Kumar M. and Cho B.R., Six-Sigma in Service Organizations, International Journal of the Quality and Reliability Management, 24(3), 294-311(2007)
  15. Hensley R.L. and Dobie K., Assessing the Readiness for Six-Sigma in Service Setting, Managing Service Quality, 15(1) ProQuest Central, 83 (2005)
  16. Hasan M., Six-Sigma in Service Organizations, Journal of Modern Accounting and Auditing, ISSN 1548-6583, 8(6), 900-906 (2012)
  17. Pan P., Six-Sigma Management Act: The Pursuit of Excellence Ladder. translated by Liu He-Guang. 1stedition. Beijing: Mechanical Industry Press, 10-25 (2002)
  18. McCrossa T., Six-Sigma Does it Fit in Hospitality? Hospitality Upgrade, Spring, 28-30, Available on:
  19. Shiau Y., Ensuring Benefits of Six-Sigma at Starwood Six-Sigma Conference: Service and Transactional Environments Scottsdale, AZ October 21 (2005)
  20. Starwood Hotels: Rubbing Customers the Right Way, Business Week, October 2007
  21. Chuan T.K. and Chakraborty A., Room for Improvement: Hotel Giant Resorts to Six-Sigma to Improve Operations, Six-Sigma Forum Magazine, 9(1), 20-24 (2009)
  22. Antony J., Six-Sigma for Service Processes, Business Process Management Journal, 12(2), 234-248(2006)
  23. Park S.H., Six-Sigma for Productivity Improvement: Korean Business Corporations, Productivity Journal, 43(2), 173-83 (2002)
  24. Coronado R.B. and Antony, J., Critical Success Factors for the Successful Implementation of Six- Sigma Projects in Organizations, The TQM Magazine, 14(2), 92-99 (2002)
  25. Antony J. and Desai D., Assessing the Status of Six-Sigma Implementation in the Indian Industry, Management Research News, 32(5),413-423(2009)
  26. General Electric, What is Six-Sigma: The Roadmap to Customer Impact, Available online via:
  27. Galloway D., Certified Six-Sigma Black Belt, New Page Corporation, (2007)
  28. Antony J. and Banuelas R., Key Ingredients for the Effective Implementation of Six-Sigma Program, Measuring Business Excellence, 6(4), 20-27(2002)
  29. Breyfogle F.W., James M.C. and Beki M., Managing Six-Sigma, John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY (2001)
  30. Lee, K., Critical Success Factors of Six-Sigma Implementation and the Impact on Operations Performance, PhD dissertation, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH (2002)
  31. Chau K., Liu S. and Ip W., Enhancing Enterprise Information Integration Using Six-Sigma. Total Quality Management, 20(5), 537-46 (2009)
  32. Lee K.C. and Choi B., Six-Sigma Management Activities and Their Influence on Corporate Competitiveness, Total Quality Management,17(7), 893-911 (2006)
  33. Sharma S. and Chetiya A.R., An Analysis of Critical Success Factors for Six-Sigma Implementation, Asian Journal on Quality, 13(3), 294-308(2012)
  34. Choi B., Kim B.L., Lee C. and Hong H., Empirical analysis of the relationship between Six-Sigma management activities and corporate competitiveness: Focusing on Samsung group in Korea, International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 32(5), 528-50 (2012)
  35. Foster Jr., Does Six-Sigma Improve Performance? Quality Management Journal,14(4), 7-20 (2007)
  36. Koh S.L., Demirbag M., Bayraktar E., Tatoglu E. andZaim S., The Impact of Supply Chain Management Practices on Performance of SMEs, Industrial Management and Data Systems, 107(1), 103-124 (2007)
  37. Sousa R. and Voss C., Quality Management Re-Visited: A Reflective Review and Agenda for Future Research. Journal of Operations Management, 20(1), 91-109 (2002)
  38. Pantouvakis A. and Kafetzopoulos D., The impact of ISO 9001 Effectiveness on the Performance of Service Companies. Managing Service Quality, 23(2), 149-164 (2013)
  39. Kafetzopoulos D. and Gotzamani K., Critical Factors, Food Quality Management and Organizational Performance, Food Control, (40), 1-11(2014)
  40. Atkinson H. and Brander-Brown J., Rethinking Performance Measures: Assessing Progress in UK Hotels, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management,13(3), 128-135 (2001)
  41. Kaynak H., The Relationship between Total Quality Management Practices and Their Effects on Firm Performance, Journal of Operations Management, (21), 405-435 (2003)
  42. Parast M.M., The Effect of Six-Sigma Projects on Innovation and Firm Performance, International Journal of Project Management,(29), 45-55(2011)
  43. Shafer S. and Moeller S., The Effects of Six-Sigma on Corporate Performance: An Empirical Investigation. Journal of Operations Management, 30, 521-532(2012)
  44. Egyptian Hotel Association, The Egyptian Hotel Guide 2013-2014, Egyptian Hotel Association (33thedition) (2013)
  45. Evangelos L., Psomas A., Pantouvakis D. and Kafetzopoulos P., The Impact of ISO 9001 Effectiveness on The Performance of Service Companies, Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, 23(2), 149-164(2013)
  46. Brah S., Wong J.L. and Rao B.M., TQM and Business Performance in the Service Sector: A Singapore Study, International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 20(11), 1293-1312 (2000)
  47. Eckes G., The Six-Sigma Revolution, John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY(2000)
  48. Beiser C., To Maximize Clean, Go Lean! Executive Housekeeping Today, 32(12), 3-18 (2010)
  49. Rylander D. and Provost T., Improving the Odds: Combining Six-Sigma and Market Research for Better Customer Service, SAM Advanced Management Journal, 71(1), 13-19(2006)
  50. Henderson K.M. and Evans J. R., Successful implementation of Six-Sigma: Benchmarking General Electric Company, Benchmarking: An International Journal, 7(4), 260-282(2000)
  51. Kwak Y.H. and Anbari F.T., Benefits, Obstacles, and Future of Six-Sigma Approach, Technovation, 26(5), 708-715 (2006)
  52. Cao G., Clarke S. and Lehaney B., A Systematic View of Organizational Change and TQM, The TQM Magazine, 12(3), 186-93 (2000)
  53. Nwabueze U., An Industry Betrayed: The Case of Total Quality Management in Manufacturing, The TQM Magazine, 13(6), 400-8 (2001)
  54. Foley K., Five Essays on Quality Management, SAI Global Ltd, Sydney,(2004)
  55. Yang C., Six-Sigma, Quality Management and Six-Sigma, Abdurrahman Coskun (Ed.), ISBN:978-953-307-130-5, In Tech, Available online: http://www.intechopen.coms(2010)