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Electromagnetic Radiation Compatibility Survey and Safety Analysis around Mobile Base Transceiver Stations: Case Studies around Kathmandu Valley

Author Affiliations

  • 1 Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Institute of Engineering, Pulchowk Campus, Tribhuvan University, NEPAL

Res. J. Engineering Sci., Volume 3, Issue (8), Pages 11-17, August,26 (2014)


The rapid growth of global mobile communication networking raises the concerns of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) hazards to the general public. In Nepal’s scenario, this issue is more serious due to haphazard and unplanned installation of different kinds of antennas and base transceiver station (BTS) mostly on the rooftops of buildings, and lack of any extensive studies. This study hence surveys and analysis the electromagnetic compatibility to identify whether the level of radiation from those BTS are hazardous to human health through numerical analysis and some typical case studies around some sample area of Kathmandu Valley of Nepal. The study first identifies the problems related to the health hazards due the EMR. Limiting exposures to harmful EMR are then studied in both theoretical and observational approaches. For the theoretical approach, three numerical models viz., far-field, cylindrical and non-vanishing models are used to find exclusion zones around the BTS of a global system of mobile communication (GSM) network and the exclusion zones are evaluated with the some international standards, namely the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and American National Standard Institute (ANSI, 1982) standard. Simulations with the typical GSM parameters reveals a limiting distance for the exclusion zones around the the radiating near fields closer to the BTS where the observations around three sampled base stations viz., Pulchowk, Dhapakhel and Chabahil areas resemble the trend of the simulated values revealing the exclusion zones nearby the BTS where the public exposure level is above the prescribed threshold value of the ICNRIP that predicts the possible health hazard if entered. The mean value of power density around those sampled domains however is found to be about 10% below of ICNIRP safety limits. In another analysis, spectrums of the radiation due to other RF sources like local TV, FM and mobile transmitters are studied and found that the mean radiation levels are quite below the ANSI, 1982 standard. These case studies can be considered as the representative cases of current scenario. Extension of research like ours more extensively in a national dimension may help one to formulate national EMR standard, policy and guidelines, which should be the urgent needs for the country’s environmental and public safeties.


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