International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Effects of arsenic trioxide on Poecilia sphenops

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Environmental Studies, Faculty of Science, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara, India
  • 2Department of Environmental Studies, Faculty of Science, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara, India
  • 3Department of Environmental Studies, Faculty of Science, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara, India

Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 6, Issue (9), Pages 41-45, September,22 (2017)


Keratosis, skin cancer and neurological disorder in human and experimental animals are among the most commonly observed health effects associated with acute and chronic exposures to inorganic arsenic. This study examines the acute and chronic dose-responses of arsenic trioxide on Poecilia sphenops (Black Molly). P. sphenops has been reported as a highly adaptable species and robust in nature. It has been extensively used to evaluate toxicity of many pollutants due to their high growth rate, birth size, reproduction and brood number. In current investigations, a batch experiment was conducted under control conditions to assess the effect of As2O3 on Black Molly. Lethal concentration (LC50) of As2O3 were investigated and observed to be 49.5 mg/L. Growth performance, macroscopic observation and mortality of fingerlings of P. sphenops in experimental tank containing 1 mg/L of As2O3 was monitored for 60 days. Mortality of fishes in the experimental tank was observed to be ~20% after 60 days of incubations. Significant change in morphometric, behavior and diminution in growth performance were observed. These results evidently indicate the sensitivity of Black Molly towards As2O3.


  1. National Research Council (US) Committee on Health Effects of Waste Incineration. (2000)., Environmental Transport and Exposure Pathways of Substances Emitted from Incineration Facilities., Waste Inciner. Public Heal. National Academies Press (US), Washington (DC).
  2. Thompson T, Fawell J, Kunikane S, Jackson D, Appleyard S, Callan P, Bartram Jamie, Kingston Phillip, Water Sanitation and World Health Organization (2007)., Chemical safety of drinking-water: Assessing priorities for risk management., Geneva: World Health Organization.
  3. Eisler R. (1988)., Contaminant Hazard Reviews Arsenic Hazards to Fish , Wildlife , and Invertabrates : a Synoptic Review., US Fish Wildl Serv Contam Hazard Rev, 85(12), 1-65. Doi: 10.5962/bhl.title.11357.
  4. International Agency for Research on Cancer and World Health Organization (2012)., Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans., Arsen. Arsen. Compd. Lyon (FR): IARC.
  5. Sumithra V., Janakiraman A. and Altaff K. (2014)., Influence of Different Type of Feeds on Growth Performance in Black Molly , Poecilia sphenops., Int J Fish Aquat Stud, 1(6), 24-26.
  6. Altaff K., Sumithra V., Janakiraman A. and Ali A.H. (2015)., Growth and survival of fingerlings of black molly ( Poecilia sphenops ) with different animal protein based formulated diets., Int J Pure Appl Zool, 3(4), 375-381.
  7. APHA (2012)., Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater., 22 ed. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
  8. Singh B.O. and Manjeet K. (2015)., Determination of LC 50 of Lead Nitrate for a fish., Labeo rohita (Hamilton Buchanan), 4(8), 23-26.
  9. Harris G.K. and Shi X. (2003)., Signaling by carcinogenic metals and metal-induced reactive oxygen species., Mutat Res Mol Mech Mutagen, 533(1-2), 183-200. Doi:
  10. Chen F. and Shi X. (2002)., Intracellular signal transduction of cells in response to carcinogenic metals., Crit Rev Oncol Hematol, 42(1), 105-121. Doi:
  11. Rana K., Patel J. and Prasad B. (2017)., Effects of an endocrine-disrupting chemical dimethyl phthalate on Poecilia sphenops., Nat Environ Pollut Technol 2017, In press.
  12. Safina K. and Muhammad J. (2014)., Heavy Metals Toxicity and Bioaccumulation Patterns in the Body Organs of Four Fresh Water Fish Species., Pak Vet J, 34(2), 161-164. Doi: 10.1097/QCO.0b013e3283638104.
  13. Kovendan K., Vincent S., Janarthanan S. and Saravanan M. (2011)., Expression of metallothionein in liver and kidney of freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio var . communis ( Linn ) exposed to arsenic trioxide., Division of Entomology , Department of Zoology , School of Life Sciences , PG & Research Department of Advanced Zoolog, Am. J. Sci. Ind. Res, 4, 1-10.
  14. Lavanya S., Ramesh M., Kavitha C. and Malarvizhi A. (2011)., Hematological, biochemical and ionoregulatory responses of Indian major carp Catla catla during chronic sublethal exposure to inorganic arsenic., Chemosphere, 82(7), 977-985. Doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.10.071.
  15. Bhattacharya A. and Bhattacharya S. (2007)., Induction of oxidative stress by arsenic in Clarias batrachus: involvement of peroxisomes., Ecotoxicol Environ Saf, 66(2), 178-187. Doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2005.11.002.
  16. Vutukuru S.S., Arun P.N., Raghavender M. and Yerramilli A. (2007)., Effect of Arsenic and Chromium on the Serum Amino-Transferases Activity in Indian Major Carp, Labeo rohita., Int J Environ Res Public Health, 4(3), 224-227.
  17. Mayer F.L. (1987)., Acute toxicity handbook of chemicals to estuarine organisms., US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Environmental Research Laboratory.
  18. Shukla J.P., Shukla K.N. and Dwivedi U.N. (1987)., Survivality and Impaired Growth in Arsenic Treated Fingerlings of Channa punctatus, a Fresh Water Murrel., CLEAN–Soil, Air, Water, 15(3), 307-311. Doi: 10.1002/aheh.19870150310.