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Hydrochemistry of groundwater and quality assessment of Manipur Valley, Manipur, India

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Chemistry, Manipur University, Canchipur, Imphal, India
  • 2Department of Chemistry, Manipur University, Canchipur, Imphal, India
  • 3Department of Environmental Sciences, Assam University, Silchar, India

Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 6, Issue (9), Pages 8-18, September,22 (2017)


The present study aims to understand the hydrogeochemical characteristics and groundwater quality of Manipur Valley, Manipur, India. A total of 145 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for different physico-chemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, total hardness, chloride, total dissolved solids, total alkalinity, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium, following the standard procedures. The analytical results were compared with drinking water guideline values of the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The concentrations of several variables like conductivity, total dissolved solids, turbidity, chloride, phosphate and sodium were beyond their desirable limits for drinking water in a number of sites. To determine the suitability of groundwater for agricultural use, chemical indices like percent sodium (Na %), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), magnesium ratio (MR)/magnesium hazard (MH), permeability index (PI) and Kelley’s ratio (KR) were calculated. Based on the analytical results, majority of water sources of the area are unsuitable for irrigation purposes. Gibb’s ratio was also calculated to understand the mechanisms controlling groundwater chemistry of the study area.


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