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Assessment of children and adult health risk factors associated with using portable water from the river Benue at Makurdi

Author Affiliations

  • 1LoS Water Engineering Nig Ltd, Suit DO5 J-Pius Plaza, 38 Jimmy Carter Street Asokoro Abuja, Nigeria
  • 2Joseph Sanwuan Tarka University Makurdi, Nigeria
  • 3Joseph Sanwuan Tarka University Makurdi, Nigeria

Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 13, Issue (1), Pages 1-9, January,22 (2024)


The non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk posed to children and adults by Cadmium, Nickel, Zinc and Lead concentration in River Benue water were evaluated in this study. Sampling for the metals was conducted on three locations in transect of north bank, middle stream and south bank making a total of nine stations. These metals were estimated as hazard index (HI) which took into account the combined effects from the heavy metals via the oral and dermal exposure pathways. It was found that the HI for children and adults via the injection pathway exceeded the safe limits in 100% of the sampling stations and was highest in ST3. For the dermal pathway, the HI was similar for both children and adults with highest in ST2 - ST3 and found to exceed the safe limit in 33.37% of all location chosen in this study. The lifetime cancer risk (CR) by ingestion of the water with respect to carcinogenic Pb and Cd were found to be high in all the sampling stations for both children and adults, while it did not pose any cancer risk by dermal pathways in children and adults in all sampling stations. It can be concluded that the river Benue water at Makurdi is polluted due to unregulated agricultural and commercial activities on the river banks. People using the water are exposed to both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk.


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