International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Assessment of rainwater quality and potential for rainwater harvesting in Dallu Awas area, Kathmandu, Nepal

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Environmental Science, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
  • 2Central Department of Geology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal
  • 3Nepal Naya Aayam Multidisciplinary Instititute, University of Northampton, Jorpati, Kathmandu Nepal
  • 4Department of Botany, Bhaktapur Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Bhaktapur, Nepal
  • 5Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
  • 6Department of Botany, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
  • 7Department of Chemistry, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal

Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 10, Issue (1), Pages 62-73, January,22 (2021)


Nepal is rich in natural resources and it is among the richest in terms of water resource availability. The average annual rainfall of the country is in between 1500-3000mm. However, water scarcity is a major problem in Kathmandu valley as well as in some major cities of the country. In this context, rainwater harvesting may serve as one of the promising ways of supplementary water supply system to meet water demand in the valley. This study is aimed to analyze the potential for rainwater harvesting, the rainfall pattern and rainwater quality at Dallu Awas area which lies within the central-western part of the Kathmandu valley. Potential rainwater harvesting was determined by the questionnaire survey method and using a mathematical formula. The rainfall pattern was determined by analyzing the rainfall data supplied by the Department of Hydrology and Metrology, Government of Nepal and, the quality of rainwater was determined by analyzing its physico-chemical and microbial parameters in the laboratory. The study showed 90.33m3 of rainwater harvesting capacity per household. Between 2006-2015 AD, the highest amount of rainfall (1829.4mm) was recorded in 2011 and the lowest (98.25mm) in 2009. For rainwater quality, a total of 81 rainwater samples were collected directly from atmospheric precipitation during rainy season from three different cluster zones viz., residential, school and hospital of the study area. The assessed physico-chemical, and microbial quality parameters were turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC), pH, biogenic compound, heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Pd and Zn) and total coliforms. Results revealed that the values of tested parameters were found within the guideline values set out by the NDWQS and WHO. Hence, the present study suggests that water scarcity in Kathmandu may be solved to some extent if proper rainwater harvesting system is adopted and collected rainwater may be used for multiple purposes following proper disinfection process.


  1. Orlińska-Woźniak, P., Wilk, P. and Gębala, J. (2013). Water availability in reference to water needs in Poland. Meteorology Hydrology and Water Management. Research and Operational Applications, 1, 45-50., undefined, undefined
  2. Słyś, D. (2009). Potential of rainwater utilization in residential housing in Poland. Water and Environment Journal, 23(4), 318-325., undefined, undefined
  3. Evans, C.A., Coombes, P.J., Dunstan, R.H. and Harrison, T. (2007). Identifying the major influences on the microbial composition of roof harvested rainwater and the implications for water quality. Water Science and Technology, 55(4), 245-253., undefined, undefined
  4. Pochwat, K., Słyś, D. and Kordana, S. (2017). The temporal variability of a rainfall synthetic hyetograph for the dimensioning of storm water retention tanks in small urban catchments. Journal of Hydrology, 549, 501-511., undefined, undefined
  5. Jones, M.P. and Hunt, W.F. (2010). Performance of rainwater harvesting systems in the southeastern United States. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 54(10), 623-629., undefined, undefined
  6. Zhang, Y., Grant, A., Sharma, A., Chen, D. and Chen, L. (2010). Alternative water resources for rural residential development in Western Australia. Water Resources Management, 24(1), 25-36., undefined, undefined
  7. Khan, S.T., Baksh, A.A., Papon, M.T.I. and Ali, M.A. (2017). Rainwater harvesting system: An approach for optimum tank size design and assessment of efficiency. International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, 8(1), 37-43., undefined, undefined
  8. Stec, A. and Zeleňakova, M. (2019). An analysis of the effectiveness of two rainwater harvesting systems located in central Eastern Europe. Water, 11(3), 458., undefined, undefined
  9. Shrestha, T.K. (1990). Resource ecology of the Himalayan waters. Curriculum Development Centre, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal, 645., undefined, undefined
  10. Shrestha, R.R. (2009). Rainwater harvesting and groundwater recharge for water storage in the Kathmandu Valley. ICIMOD Newsletter, 56, 27-30., undefined, undefined
  11. Myers, L.E. (1975). Water harvesting--2000 BC to 1974 AD. ARS W Agric Res Serv US Dep Agric., undefined, undefined
  12. Smet, J. and Moriarty, P. (2001). DGIS policy support paper: Rooftop rainwater harvesting. IRC. Delft., undefined, undefined
  13. Fink, D.H., Frasier, G.W. and Cooley, K.R. (1980). Water harvesting by wax-treated soil surfaces: progress, problems, and potential. Agricultural Water Management, 3(2), 125-134., undefined, undefined
  14. Frasier, G.W. (1980). Harvesting water for agricultural, wildlife, and domestic uses. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 35(3), 125-128., undefined, undefined
  15. Pretus, L.D. (2009). Field study on feasibility of rainwater harvesting for human consumption and for livelihood enhancement in rural Nepal. WHO, Nepal., undefined, undefined
  16. Hatibu, N., Mahoo, H.F. and Gowing, J.W. (2000). Rainwater harvesting for natural resources management: A planning guide for Tanzania. Technical Handbook, (22)., undefined, undefined
  17. Aladenola, O.O. and Adeboye, O.B. (2010). Assessing the potential for rainwater harvesting. Water Resources Management, 24(10), 2129-2137., undefined, undefined
  18. Dahal, R., Ban, J., Makaju, S., Shrestha, R.S. and Dwa, N. (2010). Rainwater Harvesting (RWH) in Nepal. Retrieved August, 10, 2020., undefined, undefined
  19. Ghimire, Y.N., Shivakoti, G.P. and Perret, S.R. (2010). Household-level vulnerability to drought in hill agriculture of Nepal: implications for adaptation planning. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 17(3), 225-230., undefined, undefined
  20. Gwenzi, W., Dunjana, N., Pisa, C., Tauro, T. and Nyamadzawo, G. (2015). Water quality and public health risks associated with roof rainwater harvesting systems for potable supply: Review and perspectives. Sustainability of Water Quality and Ecology, 6, 107-118., undefined, undefined
  21. Zdeb, M., Zamorska, J. and Papciak, D. (2016). Studying microbiology of rain water for of their use in economy. Journal of Ecological Engineering, 17(3), 203-208., undefined, undefined
  22. Despins, C., Farahbakhsh, K. and Leidl, C. (2009). Assessment of rainwater quality from rainwater harvesting systems in Ontario, Canada. Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology—AQUA, 58(2), 117-134., undefined, undefined
  23. Friedler, E., Gilboa, Y. and Muklada, H. (2017). Quality of Roof-Harvested Rainwater as a Function of Environmental and Air Pollution Factors in a Coastal Mediterranean City (Haifa, Israel). Water, 9(11), 896., undefined, undefined
  24. Helmreich, B. and Horn, H. (2009). Opportunities in rainwater harvesting. Desalination, 248(1-3), 118-124., undefined, undefined
  25. National Drinking Water Quality Standard (NDWQS, 2005). Implementation Directives for National Drinking Water Quality Standards, Ministry of Physical Planning and Works, Government of Nepal., undefined, undefined
  26. WHO (2004). Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 3rd ed. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland., undefined, undefined
  27. Makaju, R. (2007). Roof rainwater harvesting: A case study in Bhaktapur municipal area. M.Sc. Thesis, Tribhuvan University, Nepal., undefined, undefined
  28. Ghisi, E., Montibeller, A. and Schmidt, R.W. (2006). Potential for potable water savings by using rainwater: An analysis over 62 cities in southern Brazil. Building and Environment, 41(2), 204-210., undefined, undefined
  29. APHA (2012). Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water, American Public Health Association, 21th edition, 1015, Fifteenth Street, NW., undefined, undefined
  30. Pandey, S.P., Yadav, C.R., Sah, K., Pande, S. and Joshi, P.K. (2000). Legumes in Nepal. 71-97., undefined, undefined
  31. Youn, S.G., Chung, E.S., Kang, W.G. and Sung, J.H. (2012). Probabilistic estimation of the storage capacity of a rainwater harvesting system considering climate change. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 65, 136-144., undefined, undefined
  32. Bartlett, R., Bharati, L., Pant, D., Hosterman, H. and McCornick, P.G. (2010). Climate change impacts and adaptation in Nepal (Vol. 139). IWMI., undefined, undefined
  33. Baidya, S.K., Shrestha, M.L. and Sheikh, M.M. (2008). Trends in daily climatic extremes of temperature and precipitation in Nepal. Journal of Hydrology and Meteorology, 5(1), 38-51., undefined, undefined
  34. Shrestha, A.B., Wake, C.P., Dibb, J.E. and Mayewski, P.A. (2000). Precipitation fluctuations in the Nepal Himalaya and its vicinity and relationship with some large scale climatological parameters. International Journal of Climatology: A Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 20(3), 317-327., undefined, undefined
  35. Palazzoli, I.R.E.N.E., Maskey, S., Uhlenbrook, S., Nana, E.S.T.E.R. and Bocchiola ,D.A.N.I E.L.E. (2015). Impact of prospective climate change on water resources and crop yields in the Indrawati basin, Nepal. Agricultural Systems, 133, 143-157., undefined, undefined
  36. Shrestha, M.L. (2000). Interannual variation of summer monsoon rainfall over Nepal and its relation to Southern Oscillation Index. Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, 75(1-2), 21-28., undefined, undefined
  37. Parihar, S.S., Kumar, A., Kumar, A., Gupta, R.N., Pathak, M., Shrivastav, A. and Pandey, A.C. (2012). Physico-Chemical and Microbiological Analysis of Underground Water in and Around Gwalior City, MP, India, Research Journal of Recent Science, 1, 62-65., undefined, undefined
  38. Naddeo, V., Scannapieco, D. and Belgiorno, V. (2013). Enhanced drinking water supply through harvested rainwater treatment. Journal of Hydrology, 498, 287-291., undefined, undefined
  39. Trivedy, R.K. and Goel, P.K. (1986). Chemical and Biological Methods for Water Pollution Studies, Environmental Publications, Oriental Printing Press, Aligarh., undefined, undefined
  40. Leong, J.Y.C., Oh, K.S., Poh, P.E. and Chong, M.N. (2017). Prospects of hybrid rainwater-greywater decentralised system for water recycling and reuse: A review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 142, 3014-3027., undefined, undefined
  41. Zdeb, M., Zamorska, J., Papciak, D., and Słyś, D. (2020). The quality of rainwater collected from roofs and the possibility of its economic use. Resources, 9(2), 1-17., undefined, undefined
  42. Xu, Z., Wu, Y., Liu, W.J., Liang, C.S., Ji, J., Zhao, T. and Zhang, X. (2015). Chemical composition of rainwater and the acid neutralizing effect at Beijing and Chizhou city, China. Atmospheric Research, 164, 278-285., undefined, undefined
  43. Bai, L. and Wang, Z.L. (2014). Anthropogenic influence on rainwater in the Xi, undefined, undefined
  44. McCarty, M.F. (2004). Should we restrict chloride rather than sodium? Medical Hypotheses, 63(1), 138-148., undefined, undefined
  45. Purohit, S.S. and Saxena, M.M. (1990). Water, Life and Pollution. Agro Botanical Publishers., undefined, undefined
  46. Manivasakam N. (1984). Physico-chemical examination of water, sewage and industrial effluents. 2nd edn., Pragati Prakashan., undefined, undefined
  47. Versari, A., Parpinello, G.P. and Galassi, S. (2002). Chemometric survey of Italian bottled mineral waters by means of their labelled physico-chemical and chemical composition. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 15(3), 251-264., undefined, undefined
  48. Krouse, R. and Mayer, B. (1999). Sulfur and oxygen isotopes in sulphate. In: Cook PG, Herczeg AL, editors. Environmental Tracers in Subsurface Hydrology. Kluwer; Boston, 195-231., undefined, undefined
  49. Duncan, H.P. (1995). A review of urban stormwater quality processes (Report No 95/9): Cooperative Research Centre for Catchment Hydrology. Melbourne, Australia., undefined, undefined
  50. Lai, Y.H., Ahmad, Y., Yusoff, I., Bong, C.W. and Kong, S.Y. (2018, September). Effects of roof pitch gradient and material to harvested rainwater quality. In IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng (Vol. 401)., undefined, undefined
  51. Lee, J.Y., Yang, J.S., Han, M. and Choi, J. (2010). Comparison of the microbiological and chemical characterization of harvested rainwater and reservoir water as alternative water resources. Science of the Total Environment, 408(4), 896-905., undefined, undefined
  52. Gunawardena, J., Egodawatta, P., Ayoko, G.A. and Goonetilleke, A. (2013). Atmospheric deposition as a source of heavy metals in urban stormwater. Atmospheric Environment, 68, 235-242., undefined, undefined
  53. Dobrowsky, P.H., De Kwaadsteniet, M., Cloete, T.E. and Khan, W. (2014). Distribution of indigenous bacterial pathogens and potential pathogens associated with roof-harvested rainwater. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 80(7), 2307-2316., undefined, undefined
  54. Llopart-Mascar0, A., Ruiz, R., Martinez, M., Malgrat, P., Rusinol, M., Gil, A., ... and Rubio, P. (2010). Analysis of rainwater quality. Towards a sustainable rainwater management in urban environments-Sostaqua Project. NOVATECH 2010., undefined, undefined
  55. Mendez, C.B., Klenzendorf, J.B., Afshar, B.R., Simmons ,M.T., Barrett, M.E., Kinney, K.A. and Kirisits, M.J. (2011). The effect of roofing material on the quality of harvested rainwater. Water Research, 45(5), 2049-2059., undefined, undefined
  56. Puth, M.T., Neuhauser, M. and Ruxton, G.D. (2014). Effective use of Pearsons product-moment correlation coefficient. Animal Behavior, 93, 183-189., undefined, undefined