International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Study of IL-8 and IL-17 levels among certain group of Repeated Spontaneous Abortion Women with or without Toxoplasmosis, Iraq

Author Affiliations

  • 1Biology Department, College of Science, Babylon University, Babylon, IRAQ
  • 2 Biology Department, College of Science for Women, Babylon University, Babylon, IRAQ

Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., Volume 2, Issue (8), Pages 37-41, August,10 (2013)


Toxoplasmosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases worldwide caused by Toxoplasma gondii that leads to abortion or hydrocephalus during pregnancy. Thirty four female patients, age range from (14) years to (44) years with mean (29.45), with repeated spontaneous abortion suspected with toxoplasmosis were subjected for this study. Serum samples were collected from women undergoes more than two consecutive spontaneous abortion visit Babylon hospital for Maternity and children, Babylon-Iraq. All samples were investigated for specific IgG and IgM anti-toxoplasma antibodies to check toxoplasmosis in those women by using ELISA technique. This study also included measuring the level of IL-8 and IL-17 cytokine by (ELISA) to investigate their role in the immune-regulatory mechanisms involved in the repeated abortion. The results revealed that 13(38.2%) women were positive for anti-toxoplasma antibodies, 9(26.5%) women were positive for specific IgG anti-toxoplasma antibodies, while 4(11.8%) women were positive for both (specific IgG and IgM anti-toxoplasma antibodies). The results revealed that the toxoplasmosis were more prevalent in the women with age groups ranged from 14-24 years. Also there is substantial rise in the levels of IL-8 (1261.45±704.97) of Repeated abortion women with toxoplasmosis the when compared with Repeated abortion without toxoplasmosis (703.41±199.15) and control group (487.7 ± 134.6). The same results were observed with IL-17 levels which is significantly increased in the Repeated abortion women with toxoplasmosis (1491.6±500.98) when compared with Repeated abortion without toxoplasmosis (915.41±115.23) and control group (532.6 ± 127.8). Our study conclude that IL-17 and IL-8 involved in the induction of inflammation and occurring of repeated abortion.


  1. Dubey J.P., Toxoplasmosis-a waterborne zoonosis, Vet. Parasitol,126, 57-72 (2004)
  2. Montoya J.G. and Liesenfeld O., Toxoplasmosis, Lancet, 363,1965-1976 (2004)
  3. Thapliyal N., Shukla P. and Kumar B., TORCH infection in women with bad obstetric history- a pilot study in Kumaon region, Indian J. Pathol. Microbiol., 48(4), 551-553 (2005)
  4. Johnson P., Barnes R., Hart C. and Francis W., Determinants of immunological responsiveness in recurrent spontaneous abortion, Transpl., 38(3), 280-284 (1994)
  5. Turbadkar D., Mathur M. and Rele M., Seroprevalence of TORCH infection in bad obstetric history, Indian J. Med. Microbiol., 21, 108-111 (2003)
  6. Christofer B.W., Toxoplasmosis, In: Sciarra JJ, ed. Gynecology and Obstetrics, Revised Edition, Volume 3, Philadelphia-New York: Lippincott-Raven, 1- 6 (1997)
  7. Nimri L., Pelloux H. and Elkhatib H., Detection of T. gondiiDNA and specific antibodies in high-risk pregnant women, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 71(6), 831-835 (2004)
  8. Ocak S., Zeteroglu S., Ozer C., Dolapcioglu K. and Gungoren A., Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella and Cytomegalovirus among pregnant women in southern Turkey, Scand J. Infect. Dis., 39(3), 231-234 (2007)
  9. Kishore J., Aggrawal J., Aggrawal S. and Ayyagari A., Sera analysis of C. trachomatis and S-TORCH agents in women with recurrent spontaneous abortions, Indian J. Pathol. Microbiol., 46(4), 684-687 (2003)
  10. 41mononuclear cells in recurrent pregnancy loss, Hum. Reprod., 17, 2439-2444 (2002)
  11. Makhseed M., Raghupathy R., Azizieh F., Omu A., AL-Shamali E. andAshkananiL., Th1 and Th2 cytokine profiles in recurrent aborters with Successful pregnancy and with Sabsequent abortions, Hum. Reprod., 16, 2219-2226 (2001)
  12. Michimata T. , Sakai M., Miyazaki S., Ogasawara M.S., Suzumori K., Aoki K., Nagata K. and Saito S., Decrease of T-helper 2 and T-cytotoxic 2 calls at implantation sites occurs in unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion with normal chromosomal content, Hum. Reprod., 18, 1523-1528 (2003)
  13. Vesce F., Scapoli C., Giovannini G., Tralli L., Gotti G., Valerio A. and Piffanelli A., cytokine imbalance in pregnancies with fetal chromosomal abnormalities, Hum.Reprod., 17, 803-808 (2002)
  14. Mohammed K.G., El-Shammary A.B., Al-Jobouri S.A. and Al-Sagheer H.A, The role T-helper-17 in toxoplasmosis among women with abortion, Kufa Med. J., 15(1), 239-244 (2012)
  15. Mekori Y.A. and Metcalfe D.D., Mast cells in innate immunity, Immunol. Rev., 173, 131-140 (2000)
  16. Brown A.S., Hooton J., Schaefer C.A., Zhang H., Petkova E., Babulas V., Perrin M., Gorman J.M. and Susser E.S. "Elevated maternal interleukin-8 levels and risk of schizophrenia in adult offspring, Am. J. Psychiatry, 161(5), 889-895 (2004)
  17. Kolls J.K. and Linden A., Interleukin-17 family members and inflammation, Immunity, 21, 467–476 (2004)
  18. Sorlie D.E., Medical biostatistics and epidemiology: Examination and board review, 1st ed. Norwalk, Connecticut, Appleton and Lange, 47-88 (1995)
  19. Sensini A., Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnancy: opportunities and pitfalls of serological diagnosis, Clin. Microbiol.Infect., 12, 504-512 (2006)
  20. Suzuki L.A. et al., Evaluation of serological makers for the immunodiagnosisof acute acquired toxoplasmosis, J. Med. Microbiol., 50(1), 62-70 (2001)
  21. Montoya J.G. and Remington J.S., Toxoplasma gondii. In Mandell, G.L., Douglas, R.G., Bennett, J.E., Dolin, R. (Eds.). Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s.Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases.5th ed. Philadelphia, Churchill Livingstone., 2858-2888 (2000)
  22. Wilson M. and AuleyMc J.M., Toxoplasma, In: Murray, P.R. (Ed.). Manual of clinical microbiology, 7th ed. Washington, D.C. American Society for Microbiology, 1374-1382 (1999)
  23. Madhappan B., Kempuraj D., Christodoulou S., Tsapikidis S., Boucher W., Karagannis U., Athanassiou A. and TheoharidesT.C., High levels of Intrauterine Corticotropin-releasing hormone, Urocortin, Tryptase, and Interleukin-8 in spontaneous abortions, Endocrinology, 144, 2285-2290 (2003)
  24. Zicari A., Ticconi C., Realacci M., Cela O., Santangelo C., Pietropolli A., Russo M.A. and Piccione E., Hormonal regulation of cytokine release by human fetal membranes at term gestation:effects of oxytocin, hydrocortisone and progesterone on tumor necrosis factor-alpha and transforming growth factor-1 output, J. Reprod. Immunol., 56, 123-136 (2002)
  25. Koumantaki Y., Matalliotakis I.,kyriakou D., Neonaki M., Goymenon A. and Koumantakis E., Detection of interleukin-6, interleukin-8 and interleukin-11 in plasma from women with spontaneous abortion, Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol.Reprod. Biol., 98, 66-71 (2001)
  26. Marx L., Arch P., Kieslich C., Mitterlechner S., Kapp M. and Dietl J., Decidual mast cells might be involved in the onset of human first-trimester abortion, Am. J. Reprod.Immunol., 41,34-40 (1999)
  27. Chaouat G., Menu E., Clark D.A., Minkowsky M., Dy M. and Wegmann T.G., Control of fetal survival in CBA X DBA/2 mice by lymphokine therapy, J Reprod. Fertil., 89, 447-455 (1990)
  28. Saito S., Miyazaki S. and Sasaki Y.,Thl/Th2 Balance of the impla-ntation site in humans. Immunology of Pregnancy, 2ndeds. Edited by Mor G. Eurekah. Com., 1-12 (2004)
  29. Kareem G., Mohammed B., El-Shammary A., Al-Jobouri S.A. and Al-Sagheer H.A., The role T-helper-17 in toxoplasmosis among women with abortion, Kufa Med. Journal, 15(1), 223-234 (2012)
  30. Kelly M.N., Koll J.K., Happel K., Schwartzman J.D., SchwarzenbergerP., Comb C., Moretto M. and Khan I.A. Interleukin-17 receptor –mediating signaling is important for generation of an optimal polymorpgonuclear response against Toxoplasma gondii, J. Reprod. Fertil., 73(1), 617-621 (2005)
  31. Yisong Y.W. and Richard A.F., How diverse CD4 effector T cells and their functions, J. Mol. cell biology, 1, 20-36 (2009)
  32. Korn T., Oukka M., KuchrooV. And Bettelli E., Th17 cells: effector T cells with inflammatory properties, Semin. Immunol., 19, 362–371 (2007)
  33. Hirata T., Osuga Y., Hamasaki K., Yoshino O., Ito M., Hasegawa A., Takemura Y., Hirota Y., Nose E., Morimoto C., Harada M., Koga K., Tajima T., Saito S., Yano T. and Taketani Y., Interleukin (IL)-17A stimulates IL-8 secretion, cyclooxygensase-2 expression, and cell proliferation of endometriotic stromal cells, Endocrinology, 149, 1260-1267 (2008)
  34. Ito M., Nakashima A., Ina S., Okabe M., Bac N.D., Yoneda S., Shiozaki A., Tsuneyama K., Nikaido T., Hidaka T. and Saito S., Interleukin-17 (IL-17) and tumor necrosis factor a synergistically increase IL-8 production by amniotoicmethenchymal cells in preterm delivery cases with chorioamnionitis, J. Reprod. Immunol., 84, 75–85 (2010)