International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Presence of Carcinogenic compounds in Palar-Thenpennai River Basin and its Impact on increasing spurts of cancer cases in Northern Tamil Nadu, India – An evidence based fact analysis

Author Affiliations

  • 1Dept of Public Health Dentistry, Public Health Forum, Ramapuram, Chennai-89, India
  • 2Dept of Public Health Dentistry, Public Health Forum, Ramapuram, Chennai-89, India
  • 3Dept of Public Health Dentistry, Public Health Forum, Ramapuram, Chennai-89, India
  • 4Dept of Public Health Dentistry, Public Health Forum, Ramapuram, Chennai-89, India
  • 5Dept of Public Health Dentistry, Public Health Forum, Ramapuram, Chennai-89, India
  • 6Dept of Public Health Dentistry, Public Health Forum, Ramapuram, Chennai-89, India

Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., Volume 13, Issue (1), Pages 1-14, February,10 (2024)


Water contamination is currently one of the biggest concerns for every country as it depends directly on the nation’s economy and public health. The aim is to find if there is any association between the presence of carcinogens in Palar-Thenpennai river basin, Tamil Nadu, and increasing spurts of cancer cases in the Palar-Thenpennai supplying northern parts of Tamil Nadu namely Chennai, Thiruvallur, Kancheepuram, Thiruvannamalai, Ranipet and Cuddalore districts. The "Lists of carcinogens with cancer site" published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer were used to identify carcinogens. The cross-sectional studies included in the study are from the year 2007 to 2022. The levels of potential carcinogens, including phosphates, nickel, lead, arsenic, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, and nitrite/nitrate, are tracked. Their levels were compared with the WHO standard limit for drinking water. The percentage of cancer cases was determined using data from the Tamil Nadu Cancer Registry Project Report 2021. The results show a strong association between contamination level and cancer prevalence in Chennai, Thiruvallur, and Kancheepuram districts. Evidence shows the presence of carcinogens in the fish samples collected in the Gadilam River in Cuddalore district meaning that the contamination has already entered into the human food chain.


  1. Sydney Evans, Chris Campbell and Olga, V. Naidenko. (2019)., Cumulative risk analysis of carcinogenic contaminants in United States drinking water., Heliyon., 5(9), E02314.
  2. Report (2020)., The Sustainable Development Goals Report., Last assessed 20/08/2023.
  3. Richard Fuller, Philip J. Landrigan, Kalpana Balakrishnan, Glynda Bathan, Stephen Bose –O” Reilly and Michael Brauer (2022)., Pollution and Health: A progress update., The Lancet, 6(6), E535-E547.
  4. Sampath P. and Swaminathan R. on behalf of the TNCRP Study Group (2021)., Cancer incidence and mortality (Year 2017), incidence trend (2012-2017) and estimates (2018-2021) for Tamil Nadu state., Tamil Nadu Cancer Registry Project, Cancer Institute (W.I.A.), Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
  5. World Health Organisation. (2022)., IARC list of carcinogens. IARC Monographs., Volumes 1-132. Last assessed 23/09/2023.
  6. World Health Organisation (2022)., List of classifications by cancer sites with sufficient or limited evidence in humans., IARC Monographs Volumes 1-132
  7. Sujitha, S., Prabu, D., Dinesh Dhamodhar., Rajmohan, M. and Sindhu, R. (2023)., An analysis of cancer causing agents and its association with the prevalence of cancer cases in Noyyal river basin, Tamil Nadu, India - an explorative study based on scientific evidences., Int J Health Sci Res., 13(9), 215-224.
  8. Saubhagya Ranjan Mahapatra and Nimmy, P.M. (2021)., Groundwater contamination with heavy metals in Chennai city, India – A threat to the human population., IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science., 889,012037
  9. Sridhar, S. G. D., Sakthivel, A. M., Sangunathan, U., Balasubramanian, M., Jenefer, S., Mohamed Rafik, M. G. and Kanagaraj. (2017)., Heavy metal concentrationin groundwater from Besant Nagar to Sathankuppam, South Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India., Appl Water Sci., 7, 4651–4662
  10. Silambarasan, K., Senthilkumaar, P. and Velmurugan, K. (2012)., Studies on the distribution of heavy metal concentrations in River Adyar, Chennai, Tamil Nadu., European Journal of Experimental Biology, 2(6), 2192-2198.
  11. Chandrasekar. V., Shaik Mahamad, Latha, G. and Imrana Banu. (2018)., Heavy metal concentrations in groundwater: An analytical study of coastal taluks in Tiruvallur district – Tamil Nadu., International Journal for research in applied science and engineering technology., 6(III),1863-1866.
  12. Jayashree, R. and Vasudevan, N. (2007)., Organochlorine pesticide residues in groundwater of Thiruvallur district, India., Environ Monit Assess., 128, 209-215.
  13. Meenakshi, P. and Sriram, G. (2020)., Heavy metals assessment of temple ponds in Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu, India., IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering., 954, 012043.
  14. Prabhu Dass Batvari, B. and Surendran, A. (2015)., Assessment of heavy metal contamination in Chembarambakkam lake water, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India., Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research., 7(3), 865-869.
  15. Uma, T., Saravanan, N. and Jothi Narendiran, N. (2016)., Comparative analysis of physio-chemical characters and heavy metals in dye industry effluent and sugarcane industry effluent along with lake water., International Journal of Fauna and Biological Studies., 3(3), 81-83.
  16. Mohana, P., Velmurugan, P.M. and Jayaprakash, M. (2020)., Assessment of heavy metal pollution index of groundwater in Arani taluk of Tamil Nadu, South India., Ecological environment and Conservation., 26(Suppl. Issue), S213-S218.
  17. Kistan Andiyappan, Vijaya Anandan Veerasamy Alagarsamy and Thaminum Ansari Abubacker (2017)., Contemporary status of heavy metal contamination in soils affected by tannery activites, Ranipet, South India., Orient J Chem., 33(6), 3092-3100.
  18. Ambedkar, G. and Muniyan, M. (2012)., Analysis of heavy metals in water, sediments and selected freshwater fish collected from Gadilam river, Tamilnadu, India., International Journal of Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology., 2(2), 25-30.
  19. Times of India (2023). It, Read more at:, undefined
  20. Padmaja J. (2023)., Buckingham Canal full of antibiotics: Study., The Times of India. Read more at: 2023, August 23
  21. Surya Rajeev Nair, Shreelakshmi, Bharathwaj, Sindhu, R., Rajmohan, Prabu, D., and Dinesh (2021)., Systematic review on the use of Indian Gooseberry in improvement of oral hygiene., Drug and Cell Therapies in Hematology, 10(1), 2611–2620.
  22. Toxicology profiles (2023)., Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services., Last Reviewed: May 3, 2023