International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Soil Along an Altitudinal Gradients at Southern aspect of Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park, Central Nepal

Author Affiliations

  • 1Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, CHINA
  • 2 Himalayan Environment Research Institute (HERI), Kathmandu, NEPAL
  • 3 Freelancer in Public Health and Environment, Kathmandu, NEPAL

Int. Res. J. Earth Sci., Volume 3, Issue (2), Pages 1-6, February,25 (2015)

Abstract

This study accessed the variation in physico-chemical properties of soil from the Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park, central Nepal with respect to elevation gradient. Field visits were conducted during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon season. Soil samples were collected at every 100 m increase in elevation at the 15 cm depth from 1600 m to 2732 m (lower range is dominated by pine forest while upper range is by broad leaf forest with dense canopy) and packed in airtight polythene bag. Different parameters such as pH, soil moisture, organic matter, nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and water holding capacity were analysed in the lab by using standard protocols. Significant variation in soil properties at different altitudinal range was observed. Soil pH had negative relationship with increasing altitude but soil nitrogen, organic matter, soil moisture and water holding capacity was found to be increasing with increasing altitude. But in case of potassium, high concentration was observed in the middle altitudinal range while phosphorus content was stable during pre-monsoon and higher concentration at middle range during post monsoon.

References

  1. Chen Z.S., Hsieh C.F., Jiang F.Y., Hsieh T.H. and Sun I.F., Relationships of soil properties to topography and vegetation in a subtropical rain forest in southern Taiwan, Plant Ecology,(132), 229241(1997)
  2. Tsui C.C., Chen Z.S. and Hsieh C.F., Relationships between soil properties and slope position in a lowland rain forest of southern Taiwan, Geoderma,(123), 131142 (2004)
  3. Shrestha P., The vegetation Analysis of specified part of Godawari Hill Forest Area, M.Sc. Thesis submitted to Central Department of Botany, T.U. Kathmandu, Nepal, (1979)
  4. Bhatnagar H.P., Soils from different quality Sal (Shorea robusta) forest of Uttar Pradesh, India, Tropical Ecology, (6), 56-62 (1965)
  5. Chapman J.L. and Reiss M.J., Ecology: Principles and applications, Cambridge University Press. UK (1992)
  6. Johnston A.E., Soil organic matter, effects on soil and crops, Soil use and management, (2), 97-105 (1986)
  7. Binkley D. and Viotusek P.M., Soil nutrient availability. In: Peraey RW, J Eheringer H.A. Mooney and P.W. Rundel (eds.); Plant Physiological Ecology, Field methods and instrumentation. London: Chapman and Hall 75-96 (1989)
  8. Hanawalt R.B. and Whittaker R.H., Attitudinally coordinated pattern of soils and vegetation in the San Jacinto Mountains, California, Soil Science, 121(2), 114-124 (1976)
  9. Sheikh M.A. Kumar M. and Bussmann R.W., Altitudinal variation in soil organic carbon stock in coniferous subtropical and broadleaf temperate forests in Garhwal Himalaya, Carbon Balance and Management, 4, 6 (2009)
  10. Baniya S., Comparative Study of Soils between undisturbed and disturbed forest areas of Shivapuri watershed and wildlife Reserve, M.Sc. Thesis submitted to Central Department of Botany, T.U. Kathmandu, Nepal (1998)
  11. Department of National parks and wildlife conservation (DNPWC), Protected Areas of Nepal, DNPWC, Kathmandu, Nepal (2003)
  12. Shrestha B.D., A study on soil erosion hazard, Field Document No. 9. Shivapuri Integrated watershed Development project HMG/FAO, Kathmandu, Nepal (1993)
  13. ICIMOD, Land cover Adjustment mapping of Shivapuri-Nagarjun National Park, Nepal, International center for Integrated Mountain Development. Kathmandu, Nepal (2004)
  14. LRMP, Land Utilization Map, Topographical Survey Branch, Survey Department, HMG/ Kenting Earth Sciences Ltd. Canada (1984)
  15. Zobel D.D., Jha P.K., Behan J.M. and Yadav U.K.R., A Practical Manual for Ecology, Ratna Books Distributor, Kathmandu, Nepal (1987)
  16. Walkley A. and Black I.A., An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter, and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method, Soil Science,(37)29-38 (1934)
  17. Kjeldahl J.Z., A new method for the determination of nitrogen in organic bodies, Analytical Chemistry, 22, 366 (1883)
  18. Olsen S.R., Cole C.V., Watanabe F.S. and Dean L.A., Estimation of Available Phosphorus in Soils by Extraction with Sodium Bicarbonate. Washington D.C., USA. U.S. Department of Agriculture Circular No. 939 (1954)
  19. Puffeles M. and Nessim N.E., Comparison of flame-photometric and chemical methods for determining sodium and potassium in soil, plant material, water and serum, Analyst (82), 467-474 (1957)
  20. Bailey N.T.J., Statistical Methods in Biology (Third edition) Cambridge University Press, UK (1995)
  21. Larcher W., Physicological Plant Ecology. Springer verlag Berlin Germany (1995)
  22. Shrestha B., Phytoecology of Barandabhar forest, Chitwan, Central Nepal. M.Sc. Thesis, submitted to Central Department of Botany, T.U., Kathmandu, Nepal, (2003)
  23. Donahue R.L., Our Soils and Their Management. II Edition. The Interstate Printer and Publisher Inc:, 683 (1970)
  24. Paudel S. and Sah J.P., Physiochemical characteristics of soil tropical sal forest in eastern Nepal, Himalayan Journal of Science, 1(2), 107-110 (2003)
  25. Richards L.A. and Wadleigh C.H., Soil water and plant growth. In B.T. Shaw (ed), Soil Physical Conditions and Plant Growth, pp 73-251, Academic Press Inc, New York (1952)
  26. Pokhrel S., An Ecological study of Edapho-vegetation linkage in Raj Nikunj (Gokarna forest). M.Sc. Thesis, submitted to central Department of Botany, T.U., Kathmandu, Nepal (2002)
  27. Juwa G.B., Soil and site of selected plantation areas in the Kathmandu project area of Hill Foresty Development Project. Forest research division, Department of Forestry and Research, Kathmandu, Nepal (1989)
  28. Sharma H.P., Study of Biodiversity in relation to Environment Gradient of Shivapuri. M.Sc. Thesis, submitted to Central Department of Zoology, T.U., Kathmandu, Nepal (2000)
  29. Li-Feng M., Tong-Chao W. and Cao J., Effect of Organic Matter on total amount and availability of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in China, Comm Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 29(7-8), 947-953 (1998)
  30. Sigdel S.R., Attitudinally coordinated pattern of plant community structure in the Shivapuri National Park, Nepal, Banko Janakari, (18)111-17 (2008)