International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Impact of Temperature and Notonecta predation on Cyclomorphosis in Daphniapulex: A Field Study in Subtropical environment, Jammu, India

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Zoology, University of Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, 180006, INDIA
  • 2Department of Zoology, University of Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, 180006, INDIA

Res. J. Animal, Veterinary and Fishery Sci., Volume 2, Issue (3), Pages 16-21, March,24 (2014)


The present study was carried out to find the impact of temperature and predation on cyclomorphosis in Daphnia pulex in a shallow pond with subtropical climatic conditions. Average values for carapace length and tail spine length were recorded to be 1.28 mm ± 0.143 and 0.529 mm ± 0.073 respectively during whole period of study. The length of carapace and tail spine were distributed over a very wide range of values during period of low temperature (10-24°C) as compared to the high temperature period (25-30°C). The results indicated that though D. pulex didn't exhibit the characteristic cyclomorphic traits like crest enlargement but body allometry showed certain variations among two different seasons with temperature difference of 22°C which has suggested producing cyclomorphic/phenotypic alterations. Regression analysis revealed that temperature exerted a highly significantly impact on carapace length in D. pulex. However, predation of Notonecta sp. on the D. pulex was not observed to show any direct phenotypic implications on the individuals.


  1. Daday E.V, Beitragezurkenntniss der Plattensce Faune, Math NaturwBer Ung, 3, 179-184 (1885)
  2. Havel J.E. and Dodson S.I., Chaoboruspredation on typicaland spined morphs of Daphnia pulex: behavioralobservations, Limnology andOceanography, 29, 487494(1984)
  3. Tollrian R., Fish-kairomone induced morphologicalchanges in Daphnia lumholtzi (Sars), ArchHydrobiol., 130,6975 (1994)
  4. Lindholm M., Predator-Induced Cyclomorphosis ofDaphnia laevis (Branchiopoda, Cladocera) in aTropicalFloodplain (Okavango Delta, Botswana), Crustaceana, 75(6), 803-814 (2002)
  5. Boeing W.J., Ramcharan C.W. and Riessen H.P., Multipredatordefence strategies in Daphnia pulex and theirrelation to native habitat, Journal of plankton research,28(6), 571-584 (2006)
  6. Riessen H.P., Cost of predator-induced morphologicaldefences in Daphnia, Freshwater biology, 57, 1422-1433(2012)
  7. Herbert P.D.N., Cyclomorphosis in natural populations ofDaphnia cephalata, King, Freshwater Biology, 8, 79-90(1978)
  8. Jacobs J., Cyclomorphosis in Daphnia, In: R. H. Psters andR. De Bernardi (eds.), Daphnia, Mem. 1st. ItalianoIdrobiol,45, 325-352 (1987)
  9. Jacobs J., Cyclomorphosis in DaphniagaleatamendotaeBirge, a case of environmentally controlled allometry, ArchHydrobiol., 58, 7-71 (1961)
  10. Hrbacek J., Circulation of water as a main factorinfluencing the development of helmets in DaphniacucullataSars., Hydrobiol., 13, 170-185 (1959)
  11. Hazelwood D.H., Illumination and turbulence effects onrelative growth in Daphnia, Limnology and Oceanography,38, 1823-1827 (1966)
  12. Herbert P.D.N. and Grewe P.M., Chaoborus induced shiftsin the morphology of Daphniaambigua, LimnologyOceanography, 30, 1291-1297 (1985)
  13. Yurista P.M., Cyclomorphosis in Daphnia lumholtziinduced by temperature, Freshwater Biology, 43, 207-213(2000)
  14. Chouhan P. and Kanhere R.R., Diversity of Zooplankton inBarwani Tank of West Nimar, MP, India, Res. J. Animal,Veterinary and Fishery Sci., 1(3), (2013)
  15. Hutchinson G.E., Introduction to lake biology and thelimno-plankton, in A treatise of limnology, John Wileyand Sons, Inc., New York, London and Sydney, 2, 1115(1967)
  16. Wetzel R.G., Limnology - lake and river ecosystems, Academic Press, Santiago, London, 1-1006, (2001)
  17. Hanazato T., Induction of helmet development by aChaoborus factor in Daphnia ambigua during juvenilestages, J Plankton Res., 12, 1287-1294 (1990)
  18. Pijanowska J., Cyclomorphosis in Daphnia as an adaptionto avoid invertebrate predation, Hydrobiologia, 198, 41-50,(1990)
  19. Stabell O.B., Olgbebo, F. and Primicerio, R., Inducibledefences in Daphnia depend on latent alarm signals fromconspecific prey activated in predators, Chem Senses., 28,141-153 (2003)
  20. Coleman M.J. and Hynes H.B.N., The vertical distributionof the invertebrate fauna in the bed of a stream, Limnologyand Oceanography, 15, 31-40 (1970)
  21. Hynes H.B.N., Invertebrate fauna of a Welsh mountainstream, Archiv fur Hydrobiologie, 57, 344-388, (1961)
  22. Havel J. E., Cyclomorphosisin Daphnia pulexspinedmorphs, Limnol Oceanogr., 30(4), 853-861 (1985)
  23. Riessen H.P. and Sprules W.G., Demographic costs ofantipredator defenses in Daphnia pulex, Ecology, 71, 1536-1546 (1990)
  24. Luning J., Phenotypic plasticity of Daphnia pulex in thepresence of invertebrate predators: morphological and lifehistory responses, Oecologia, 92, 383-390 (1992)
  25. Black A.R., Predator induced phenotypic plasticity inDaphnia pulex: Life history and morphological responses toNotonecta and Chaoborus, Limnology and Oceanography,38(5), 986-996 (1993)
  26. Weetman D. and Atkinson D., Antipredator reaction normsfor life history traits in Daphniapulex: dependence ontemperature and food, OIKOS, 98, 299-307 (2002)
  27. Rabus M., Waterkeyn A., Pottelbergh N.V., Brendonck L.and Laforsch C., Interclonal variation, effectiveness andlong term implications of Triops- induced morphologicaldefences in Daphnia magna Strauss, Journal of planktonresearch, 34(2), 152-160 (2012)
  28. Allanson B.R., Hart R.C., O, Inland waters of southern Africa - an ecologicalperspective, (Kluwer Acad. Publ., Dordrecht), 1-458 (1990)
  29. Mavuti K.M., Durations of development and productionestimates by two crustacean Zooplankton speciesThermocyclops oblongatusSars (Copepoda) andDiaphanosomaexcisumSars (Cladocera) in Lake Naivasha, Kenya, Hydrobiologia, 272, 185-200 (1994)
  30. Angilletta Jr M.J., Todd D., Steury T.D. and Sears M.W., Temperature, Growth Rate, and Body Size in Ectotherms:Fitting Pieces of a Life-History Puzzle, Integr Comp Biol.,44, 498-509 (2004)
  31. Atkinson D., Temperature and organism size-a biologicallaw for ectotherms? Advances in Ecological Research, 25,1-58, (1994)
  32. Van der Have, T. M. and Jong, G., Adult size inectotherms: temperature effects of growth anddifferentiation, Journal of Theoretical Biology, 183, 329-340 (1996)
  33. Panov V.E. and McQueen D.J., Effects of temperature onindividual growth rate and body size of a freshwateramphipod, Canadian Journal of Zoology, 76, 1107-1116(1998)
  34. Mitchel B.D., Cyclomorphosis in Daphniacarinata King(Crustacea:Cladocera) from two adjacent sewage lagoons inSouth Australia, Aust. J Mar Freshwater Res., 29, 565-576(1978)
  35. Zaret, T.M., Predator-prey interaction in a tropicallacustrine ecosystem, Ecology, 53, 248-257 (1980)
  36. Scott M.A. and Murdoch W.W., Selective predation by thebackswimmer, Notonecta, Limnology Oceanography, 28,352-366 (1983)
  37. Murdoch, W. W. and Scott, M. A., Stability and extinctionof laboratory populations of zooplankton preyed upon bythe backswimmer Notonecta, Ecology, 65, 1231-1248(1984)