International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Consumption patterns of freshwater oyster Etheria elliptica (Lamarck, 1807) in the Surrounding Villages of Pendjari Biosphere Reserve: A Potential Substitute Protein source for Bushmeat

Author Affiliations

  • 1 Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Abomey Calavi, 01 P.O.B. 526, Cotonou, BENIN
  • 2 Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Abomey Calavi, 01 P.O.B. 526, Cotonou, BENIN
  • 3National Institute of Agricultural Research of Benin (INRAB) CRA-Agonkanmey; 01 P.O.B. 884, Cotonou, BENIN
  • 4National Institute of Agricultural Research of Benin (INRAB) CRA-Agonkanmey; 01 P.O.B. 884, Cotonou, BENIN

Res. J. Animal, Veterinary and Fishery Sci., Volume 2, Issue (10), Pages 1-9, October,24 (2014)


Hunting for bushmeat constitutes the main driver of wildlife decline in tropical Africa. Promotion of alternative protein source for forest people is nowadays a raising option for stakeholders to face decrease of wildlife population. This study aimed at assessing the consumption pattern of freshwater oyster Etheria elliptica among harvester groups and the potential of oyster meat as substitute protein source to bushmeat based on acceptability, availability, lower price and nutritious value criteria. Data were collected on oyster meals and consumption frequency during harvesting season using food frequency questionnaire, followed by a survey on comparative price and availability of oyster and bushmeat over the year. Literature information was also investigated on nutritious quality both of oyster and bushmeat. Six oyster traditional meals were reported in study area. The great majority of survey participants (78%) had consumed oyster meals on daily basis. About two oyster meals were eaten per day both by young (age < 40 years) and old people underlying acceptability across age groups among respondents. Outcomes indicated availability of oyster meat kept in ash over the year at lower price than bushmeat partly due to anti-poaching enforcement. Meat chemical composition of smoked oyster was similar to bushmeat. Consequently, oyster meat was likely a potential alternative protein source to bushmeat. Outcomes from this study are of great importance for Park managers for promoting alternative protein sources for forest people around protected areas in Benin and African countries.


  1. Hoffman L.C. and Wiklund E., Game and venison–Meatfor the modern consumer, Meat Sci., 74, 197–208(2006)
  2. Fa J.E. and Brown D., Impacts of hunting on mammalsin African tropical moist forests: a review and synthesis, Mamm. Rev., 39(4), 231–264 (2009)
  3. Sinsin B., Tehou A.C., Daouda I. and Saidou A., Abundance and species richness of larger mammals inPendjari National Park in Benin, Mammalia, 66(3),369–380 (2002)
  4. Ganguly S., Global impact of Wildlife and AnimalTrafficking with special reference to Indian Perspectiveand International Regulatory Efforts: A Review, Res. J.Animal, Veterinary and Fishery Sci., 1(4), 18-19 (2013)
  5. Mainka S. and Trivedi M., Links between BiodiversityConservation, Livelihoods and Food Security: Thesustainable use of wild species for meat, The IUCNSpecies Survival Commission, Occasional Paper of theIUCN Species Survival Commission, 24 (2002)
  6. Amahowé I.O., Laurent G. Houessou L.G., SoulemaneAshanti S., Aristide C. and Tèhou A.C., Transboundaryprotected areas management: experiences from W-ArlyPendjariparks in West Africa, Parks, 19(2), 95-105(2013)
  7. Anstey S., Wildlife Utilization in Liberia, WorldWildlife Fund and Liberian Forestry Department, Authority, Gland, Switzerland (1991)
  8. Bennett E.L. and Robinson J.G., Hunting of Wildlife inTropical Forests, World Bank, Biodiversity Series–Impact Studies, 76 (2000)
  9. Akinyemi A.F. and Oduntan O.O., An evaluation of theeffect of Conservation legislation on wildlife offenses inthe Yankari National Park, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nig. J.For., 34 (1), 28-35 (2004)
  10. Chin C.L.M., Hunting Patterns and Wildlife Densities inPrimary and Production Forests in the UpperBaram, Sarawak. Master’s Thesis, Universiti MalaysiaSarawak, (2001)
  11. Moro M., Fischer A, Milner-Gulland E., Lowassa A.,Loiruck C. Naiman L.C. and Nick Hanley N., Aninvestigation of the determinants of household demandfor bushmeat in the Serengeti using an open-endedchoice experiment, Stirling Economics DiscussionPaper, 2014-07, 30 (2014)
  12. CENAGREF, Parc National de la Pendjari, Bénin: Pland`aménagement participatif et de Gestion 2004-2013, CENAGREF/GTZ, 83 (2005)
  13. Tèhou A.C., Amahowé, O.I. et and Mensah G.A., Importance des aires protégées du complexe des parcsdu W, d`Arly et de la Pendjari pour les communautésriveraines et le grand public en République du Benin.,Annales Sciences Agronomiques., 16(2), 175-190(2012)
  14. Oduntan O.O., Soaga J.A. and Jenyo-Oni A., Comparison of edible frog (Rana esculenta) and otherbush meat types: Proximate composition, social statusand acceptability, J. Environ. Res. Manage., 3(7), 124-128 (2012)
  15. Brashares J.S., Arcese P., Sam M.K., Coppolillo P.B.,Sinclair A.R.E. and Balmford A., Bushmeat Hunting,Wildlife Declines, and Fish Supply in West Africa, Sci.,306, 1180-1183 (2004)
  16. Obasohan E., Edward E. and Oronsaye J.A.O., A Surveyon the Processing and Distribution of Smoked Catfishes(Heterobranchus and Clarias Spp.) in Ekpoma, EDOState, Nigeria, Res. J. Animal, Veterinary and FisherySci., 1(8), 23-28, (2012)
  17. Rao, J. C. S., Raju, C. S. and Simhachalam, G., Biodiversity and Conservation Status of Fishes of RiverSarada, Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh, India, Res. J. Animal, Veterinary and Fishery Sci., 2(2), 18(2014)
  18. Akinrotimi O.A. and Edun O.M., Consumer dispositiontowards mangrove oyster (Crassostrea gasar)consumption in selected fishing communities of RiversState, Nigeria, Cont. J. Agric. Econ., 5 (1), 41–46 (2011)
  19. Dègnon, R.G., Adjou, E.S., Wongla S., DahouenonAhoussiE., and Sohounhloué D.C., Investigation on theEfficacy of the Traditional Depuration Method ofOysters (Crassostrea gasar) used in Lakeside Villagesof Southern Benin, Res. J. Animal, Veterinary andFishery Sci., 1(11), 5-12 (2013)
  20. Abdul-Razak A., Asiedu A.B., Entsua-Mensah R.E.M.and de Graft-Johnson K.A.A., Assessment of the WaterQuality of the Oti River in Ghana, West Afr. J. Appl.Ecol., 15, 12 (2009)
  21. Ampofo-Yeboah A., Aspects of the fishery, ecology andbiology of the freshwater oyster (Etheria sp. Lamarck,1807) in northern Ghana, Master of Philosophy degreein Zoology University of Cape Coast, 42 (2000)
  22. Fogny-Fanou N., Koreissi Y., Dossa R.A.M. andBrouwer I.D., Consumption of, and beliefs about fonio(Digitaria exilis) in urban area in Mali, Afr. J. Food,Agric. Nutr. Dev., 9(9), 18 (2009)
  23. Abulude F.O., Determination of Chemical compositionof bush meats found in Nigeria, Am. J. Food Technol.,2(3), 153-160 (2007)
  24. Bork K., Cames C., Barigou S., Cournil A. and DialloA., A summary index of feeding practices is positivelyassociated with height-for-age, but only marginally withlinear growth, in rural Senegalese infants and toddlers, J. Nutr., 142 (6),1116-1122 (2012)
  25. Ghatge N.S., Highly Nutritious Designed SoyaladooSupplementation to Malnourished Preschool Childrenand its Benefits on their Nutrient Intake, Res. J. RecentSci., 3(9), 15-18 (2014)
  26. Dapi N.L., Janlert U., Nouedoui C. and Håglin L., Adolescents Food Habits and Nutritional Status inUrban and Rural Areas in Cameroon, Africa, Scand. J.Nutr., 49, 151-158 (2005)
  27. Lykke A.M., Mertz O. and Ganaba S., Foodconsumption in rural Burkina Faso, Ecol. Food Nutr.,41(2), 119-153 (2002)
  28. Assogbadjo A.E., Glèlè Kakaï R., Chadaré F.J.,Thomson L., Kyndt, T., Sinsin B. and P. Van Damme., Folk Classification, Perception, and Preferences ofBaobab Products in West Africa: Consequences forSpecies Conservation and Improvement, Econ. Bot., 62,74–84 (2008)
  29. Vodouhê G.F. Coulibaly O., Adégbidi A. and Sinsin B., Community Perception of Biodiversity Conservationwithin Protected Areas in Benin, For. Policy Econ.,12(7), 505-512 (2010)
  30. Bay T., Contribution à l, Faculté Universitaire desSciences Agronomiques Gembloux, Belgique, 98 (2000)
  31. Cowlishaw G., Mendelson S. and Rowcliffe J.M., TheBushmeat Commodity Chain: patterns of trade andsustainability in a mature urban market in West Africa, Wildl. Policy, 7, 4 (2004)
  32. Wilkie D.S. and Carpenter J., Bushmeat hunting in theCongo Basin: an assessment of impacts and options formitigation, Biodiversity Conserv., 8, 927-955 (1999)
  33. Lindsey P.A., Romañach, S.S. Matema, S. Matema, C.Mupamhadzi I. and Muvengwi J., Dynamics andunderlying causes of illegal bushmeat trade inZimbabwe, Oryx 45, 84 (2011)
  34. Rentsch D. and Damon A., Prices, poaching, and proteinalternatives: An analysis of bushmeat consumptionaround Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, Ecol. Econ.,91, 1–9 (2013)
  35. Cormier-Salem M.C., La cueillette des huitres enCasamance. Place de cette pratique dans le systèmed’exploitation Diola, Document scientifique du Centrede recherche océanographiques de Dakar-Tiaroye 106,104 (1987)
  36. Alfred-Ockiya J.F., Nutritional changes in traditionallypreserved shellfishes from the Niger-Delta, Nigeria, J.Aquat. Sci., 15, 9-11(2000)
  37. Ntiamoa-Baidu Y., Wildlife and food security in Africa.FAO Conservation Guide 33. FAO, Rome, Italy (1997)
  38. Ijeomah H.M., Alagoa A.L. and Ijeomah A.U., Availability and Nutritional Values of Selected NonVertebrate Wildlife Species in Niger Delta, Nig.Environ. Nat. Resour. Res., 3(2), 10-27 (2013)
  39. Wardlaw G.M., Perspectives in Nutrition, McGraw-HillCompanies. USA, 506 (1999)
  40. Ridzwan B.H., Hanani M., Siti Norshuhadaa M.P.,Farah Hanis Z. and Aileen T.S.H., Screening foraphrodisiac property in local oyster of Crassostreairedalei, World Appl. Sci. J., 26 (12), 1546-1551 (2013)