International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Biochemical and Fatty Acid Analysis of Faeces in Umblachery Cattle (Bos Indicus) During Different Phases of Estrous Cycle

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Zoology, Rajah Serfoji Government College (Autonomous), Thanjavur 613 005, Tamilnadu, INDIA
  • 2Department of Zoology, Rajah Serfoji Government College (Autonomous), Thanjavur 613 005, Tamilnadu, INDIA

Res. J. Animal, Veterinary and Fishery Sci., Volume 2, Issue (1), Pages 1-5, January,24 (2014)


Mammals release different variety of molecules into the environment, either as specific chemosignals or metabolic byproducts through vaginal fluid, urine, faeces, saliva, milk, sweat and specialized scent glands. The bovine olfactory system has the ability to recognize and discriminate among thousands of structurally diverse odorants, which have access to the behavioural and physiological outputs. This chemical cues are used to pass the signals between individuals conveying information including sex, reproductive status, individual identity, ownership, competitive ability and health status. The complex mixtures of molecules sensed by bovine chemosensory systems and have important influences of behaviours such as mother-young interaction, mate choice and territorial marking. In the present study, it is planned to identify and estimate the biochemicals and fatty acids present in the faecal samples of Umblachery breed cow (Bos indicus) during different phases of estrous cycle. The biochemical estimation showed that protein, carbohydrate and lipid were higher in oestrus phase when compared to all other phases. Further, GC analysis of the faecal samples showed that 20 different fatty acids are identified in all the phases of estrous cycle. The fatty acids like valeric, caproic, myristic, gadoleic and pelargonic acids are found only in estrus not in other phases. Based on the above information, the present study suggests that the qualitative and quantitative presence of certain biochemicals and fatty acids would be reliable indicators of oestrus in bovine. The role of biochemical and fatty acids in animal behaviour must be confirmed by field study. The presence of biochemicals and specific fatty acids in estrus faeces makes the possibility to develop a biomarker for the detection of estrus in Umblachery cattle very accurately.


  1. Phillips C.J.C., Principle of cattle production, ., CABI Publishing, 1 (2001)
  2. Lucy M.C., Reproductive loss in high-producing dairycattle: where will it end?, J Dairy Sci, 84, 12771293(2001)
  3. Royal M.D., Darwash A.O., Flint A.P.F., Webb R.,Woolliaams J.A. and Lamming G.E., Declining fertility indairy cattle: changes in traditional and endocrineparameters of fertility, Anim Sci, 70, 487502 (2000)
  4. Stevenson J.S., Reproductive management of dairy cowsin high milk-producing herds, J Dairy Sci, 84, 128143(2001)
  5. Albone E.S., Mammalian semiochemistry: theinvestigation of chemical signals between mammals, NewYork: John Wiley & Sons., 360 (1984)
  6. Brown R.E. and Macdonald D.W., Social odours inmammals, vol 1. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 500 (1985)
  7. Eisenberg J.F. and Kleiman D.G., Olfactorycommunication in mammals, Annu Rev Ecol Systemat, 3,132 (1972)
  8. Muller-Schwarze D., Chemical ecology of vertebrates, .Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 578 (2006)
  9. Ralls K., Mammalian scent marking, Science, 171, 443449 (1971)
  10. Jezierski T., The effectiveness of estrus detection in cowsby attained dog, Ani. Sci. Papers Rep, 10, 57-65 (1992)
  11. Archunan G., Vertebrate pheromones and their biologicalimportance, Ind. J. Exp. Biol, 2, 227239 (2009)
  12. Kimura R., Volatile substances in feces, urine and urinemarkedfeces of feral horsesm, Can. J. Anim. Sci, 411-420(2001)
  13. Lowry O.H., Rosenbrough N.J., Farr A.L. and RandallR.J., Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent, J.Biol. Chem, 193, 265-275 (1951)
  14. Dubois M., Gilles K.A., Hamilton J.K., Rebers P.A. andSmith F., Colorimetric method for determination of sugarsand related substances, Anal. Chem, 28, 350-356 (1956)
  15. Folch A.J., Lees M. and Stanley G.H., A simple methodfor the isolation and purification of total lipids from animaltissues, J. Biol. Chem, 226, 497-509 (1957)
  16. Miller L. and Berger T., Bacteria identification by GC ofwhole cell fatty acids, GC Hewlett Packard ApplicationNote, 228-241 (1985)
  17. Zar J.H., In Bio statistical Analysis, Englewood Cliffes, N.J; Prentice hall. Inc., 3, 123-129 (1984)
  18. Rameshkumar K., Renuka R., Prabu T. and Sangeetha P., Biochemical analysis of bovine (Bos indicus) urine withreference to estrous cycle, Adv. Bio Tech, 12, 43-45 (2012)
  19. Boyland E., The composition of bovine cervical mucusand their reaction with oxidizing agent, J. Biochem, 40,334-337 (1946)
  20. Beynon R.J. and Hurst J.L., Scent wars the chemicalbiology of competitive signalling in mice, Bio Essays, 26,1288-1298 (2004)
  21. Poddar-Sarkar, M., The fixative lipid of tiger pheromone, J. Lipid Mediate Cell Signal, 15, 89101 (1996)
  22. Kannan S., Rameshkumar K. and Archunan G., Sexattractants in male preputial gland: Chemical identificationand their role in reproductive behavior in rats, Cur. Sci, 74,689-691 (1998)
  23. Rameshkumar K. and Archunan G., Analysis of urinaryfatty acids in bovine (Bos taurus): An effective method forestrus detection, Ind. J. Anim Sci, 76 (9), 669-672 (2006)
  24. Sankar R. and Archunan G., Identification of putativepheromones in bovine (Bos taurus) faeces in relation toestrus detection, Anim. Repro. Sci, 103(1-2), 149-153(2008)
  25. Alagendran S., Archunan G., Rameshkumar K.,Rengarajan R.L., Fernandez G. and Guzman G., Detection of fatty acids profile in human saliva withspecial reference to ovulation, Inter. J. biol, 3(1), 87-91(2011)
  26. Rajanarayan S. and Archunan G., Identification of urinarysex pheromones in female buffaloes and their influence onbull reproductive behavior, Res. J. Vet. Sci, 91, 301305(2011)
  27. Sankar R. and Archunan G., Flehmen response in bull: roleof vaginal mucus and other body fluids of bovine withspecial reference to estrus, Behav. Process, 67, 8186(2004)
  28. Brahmachary R.L., Poddar-Sarkar M. and Dutta J., Chemical signals in the tiger. In: R.L. Doty and D. Mullerschwarze(eds), che. signals vertebrates VI, (Plenum Press,New York), 471-475 (1992)
  29. Brahmachary R.L., Dutta J. and Poddar-Sarkar M., Themarking fluid of tiger, Mammalian, 55, 150-157 (1991)
  30. Weigerinck W., Setkus A., Buda V., Borg-Karlson A.K.,Mozuraitis R. and de Gee A., Bovinose: Pheromone-BasedSensor System for Detecting Estrus in Dairy Cows, Procedia Compu. Sci, 7, 340-342 (2011)