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Betanodavirusinfection in marine fishaquaculture in Malaysia

Author Affiliations

  • 1Microbiology and Fish Disease Laboratory, Borneo Marine Research Institute, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, MALAYSIA
  • 2Microbiology and Fish Disease Laboratory, Borneo Marine Research Institute, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, MALAYSIA
  • 3Microbiology and Fish Disease Laboratory, Borneo Marine Research Institute, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, MALAYSIA
  • 4Fisheries Department Sabah, WismaPertanian, JalanTasik, 88628 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, MALAYSIA
  • 5Fisheries Department Sabah, WismaPertanian, JalanTasik, 88628 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, MALAYSIA
  • 6National Fish Health Research Centre (NaFisH), 11960, BatuMaung, P. Pinang, MALAYSIA

Res. J. Animal, Veterinary and Fishery Sci., Volume 1, Issue (7), Pages 10-15, August,24 (2013)


Betanodavirus is known to cause mass mortality in many marine aquaculture fish species. In this study, we detected the virus in four different marine aquaculture fish species in Malaysia. These included humpback grouper (Cromileptisaltivelis), brown marbled grouper (Epinephelusfuscoguttatus), Asian seabass (Latescalcarifer) and golden pompano (Trachinoltusblochii). Out of 246 fish specimens analyzed using RT-PCR, 60.98% detected infected by the virus. Histological pathological analysis showed extensive cell vacuolationin the brain and retina tissues of severely infected specimens. However, some of the fish specimens detected positive using RT-PCR did not exhibit cell vacoulation which indicate the carrier state of those specimens. The RT-PCR amplification method developed in this study was shown useful as biosecurity tool in monitoringBetanodavirus infection in aquaculture. Although the origin of Betanodavirus in Malaysia is difficult to ascertained, evidence showed that some infections may have been contributed by the importation of fish fingerlings form neighboring countries. Currently, effective treatment of the viral disease is still impossible hence strict biosecurity measures need to be carried out in order to control the spread of the virus in fish stocks. These can include enforcement of biosecurity check and quarantine of every batch of imported fish, the use of virus-free broodstocks in hatchery, and proper disposal of infected fish stocks. In addition, good aquaculture practices must be carried in aquaculture farms or fish nursery all the time.


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