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Evaluation of effect of age on callus initiation rate in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Types

Author Affiliations

  • 1Nigerian Institute for oil palm Research, P.M.B. 1030, Benin City, Edo state, Nigeria
  • 2Department of Agronomy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
  • 3College of Education, Ekiadolor – Benin City, Edo state, Nigeria
  • 4Nigerian Institute for oil palm Research, P.M.B. 1030, Benin City, Edo state, Nigeria
  • 5Nigerian Institute for oil palm Research, P.M.B. 1030, Benin City, Edo state, Nigeria
  • 6Nigerian Institute for oil palm Research, P.M.B. 1030, Benin City, Edo state, Nigeria
  • 7Department of Crop Protection and Environmental Biology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

Res. J. Agriculture & Forestry Sci., Volume 10, Issue (3), Pages 9-15, July,8 (2022)


The need to overcome the constraints in oil palm propagation with seeds resulted in somatic embryogenesis (plantlets production). So far, this has yielded limited success. Consequently, effort to improve the technique, calls for evaluation of the effect of palm age, one of the in vitro cultural factors, on callus production rate. A factorial experiment (2x2x3x3x 4) in completely randomised design, with eighteen replicates was conducted. Immature terminal leaves harvested from 8, 10, 12 and 14 year old Dura, Tenera and Pisifera oil palm types were analyzed for mineral content and cultured in Murashige and Skoog, modified MS and Eeuwens media. Each was supplemented with 160mgl-1 Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) or 22 mgl-1 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D). Explants were incubated in uninterrupted light or darkness. Calli initiation from leaf explants were recorded and expressed in percentages. Data were subjected to ANOVA at P= 0.05. Callus initiation occurred in all oil palm types across the palm ages irrespective of light regime. Callusing decreased significantly with age from 10.5% (8 years) to 4.8% (14 years). The younger palms which exhibited higher rates of calli initiation than older palms also contained higher levels of essential minerals. Somatic embryogenesis has the advantage of non-destruction of parent plants and production of true-to-type multiple offspring when exploited. This would involve young (8 years) palms containing required amounts of essential elements and Eeuwens medium supplemented with optimal concentration of growth regulators (NAA or 2,4-D).


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