International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Studies on the Role of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Enhancement on Soil Aggregate Stability

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore -3, Tamil Nadu, INDIA
  • 2Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Anbil Dharmalingam Agricultural College and Research Institute, Trichy 9, Tamil Nadu, INDIA

Res. J. Recent Sci., Volume 3, Issue (ISC-2013), Pages 19-28, (2014)


Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) fungi isolated from various crop rhizosphere of sodic soil sites were purified and selected for inoculation along with two standard strains namely, Glomus intraradices and Scutellospora calospora in a pot culture experiment with maize as host crop to study their influence on soil aggregation. Analysis on soil parameters responsible for improving soil aggregation after a period of 24 weeks showed influence of AM fungal inoculations on root colonization (93 %), soil spore load (620 spores 100 g-1 soil), particulate organic matter (60 mg g-1 soil), microbial count (9.7 x 105 of bacteria, 10.3 x 104 of fungi and 1.4 x 103 of actinobacteria), micronutrient contents (4.96 0.06, 0.830.05 and 3.520.20 ppm of iron, copper and zinc respectively) soil organic carbon (0.37 %), total glomalin production (62 g of protein g-1 of soil) as well as the water soluble carbohydrate content (0.67 mg g-1 soil). Therefore the aggregate stability of the soil has been increased to 53 % where, the standard strains ranked the highest followed by the sodic soil isolates, Glomus mosseae (TRY 3) and Scutellospora sp. (TRY 2). Overall results showed the positive influence of AM fungi on soil aggregation.


  1. Hodge A., Campbell C.D and Fitter A.H., An arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus accelerates decomposition and acquires nitrogen directly from organic material. Nature,413, 297299 (2001)
  2. Atul-Nayyar A., Hamel C, Hanson K. and Germida J., The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis links N mineralization to plant demand, Mycorrhiza,19, 239246 (2009)
  3. Bearden B.N. and Peterson L., Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on soil structure and aggregate stability of a vertisol, Plant Soil, 218, 173-183 (2000)
  4. Miller R.M. and Jastrow J.D., Mycorrhizal fungi influence soil structure. In: Arbuscular Mycorrhizas: Molecular Biology and Physiology. (Eds.). Y. Kapulnik and D.D Douds, Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 3-18 (2000)
  5. Gadkar V. and Rillig M., The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal protein glomalin is a putative homolog of heat shock protein 60, FEMS Microbiol. Lett.,263, 93-101 (2006)
  6. Gerdemann J.W. and Nicolson P.H., Spores of Mycorrhizal Endogone species extracted from soil by wet sieving and decanting,Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc., 46, 235244 (1963)
  7. Morton J.B., Bentivenga S.P. and Wheeler W.W., Germplasm in the International Collection of Arbuscular and Vesicular Mycorrhizal Fungi (INVAM) and procedures for culture development, documentation and storage, Mycotaxon, 48, 491-528 (1993)
  8. Phillips J.M. and Hayman D.S., Improved procedures for clearing and staining parasitic and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for rapid assessment of infection, Trans. of Brit. Mycol. Soc., 13, 31-32 (1970)
  9. Walkley A. and Black C.A., An examination of the Deglgareff method for determining soil organic matter and proposed modification of chromic acid titration method, Soil Sci., 37, 29-38 (1934)
  10. Wolf D.C., Legg J.O. and Boutton T.W., Isotopic methods for organic matter dynamics. In:Methods of Soil Analysis. (Eds.), R.W. Weaver et al. Part 2. Microbiological and Biochemical properties, 879. SSSA Book Series, 5 Madison, WI (1994)
  11. Swift R.S., Organic matter characterization. Methods of Soil Analysis. In: Part 3. Chemical methods. (Eds.), D.L. Sparks et al. SSSA Book Series, no. 5 Madison, WI., 1018-1020 (1996)
  12. Brink R.H., Dybar P and Lynch D.L.N., Measurement of carbohydrates with anthrone, Soil Sci., 89, 157-166 (1960)
  13. Wright S.F. and Upadhyaya A., Extraction of an abundant and unusual protein from soil and comparison with hyphal protein of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Soil Sci., 161,575-585 (1996)
  14. Bradford M.M., A rapid and sensitive method for quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye-binding, Anal. Biochem., 72, 248-54 (1976)
  15. Kemper W.D. and Koch E.J., Aggregate stability of soils from western United States and Canada. USDA-ARS Tech. Bull., vol. 1355. U.S. Govt. Print, Office, Washington, DC (1966)
  16. Lindsay L. and Norvel W.A., Development of DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese and copper, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 42, 421-428 (1978)
  17. Gomez K.A. and Gomez A.A., Statistical Procedures in Agricultural Research New York, Chichester, etc.Wiley 2nd edition, paperback, 680, (1984)
  18. Gossling P., Hodge A., Goodlass G. and Bending G.D., Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and organic farming, Agr.Ecosyst. Enviro., 113, 17-35 (2006)
  19. Sutton J.C. and Sheppard B.R., Aggregation of sand-dune soil by endomycorrhizal fungi, Can. J. Bot., 54, 326-333 (1976)
  20. Jones C., McConnell C, Coleman K, Cox P, Falloon P, Jenkinson D. and Powlson D., Global climate change and soil carbon stocks; predictions from two contrasting models for the turnover of organic carbon in soil, Global Change Biol., 11, 154166 (2004)
  21. Vivek P.N., Carbon sequestration pattern in maize (Zea mays l.) - mycorrhizal (Glomus intraradices Schenck and Smith) system under long-term fertility gradients. M.Sc., thesis submitted to Tamil Nadu Agricutural University. Coimbatore (2008)
  22. Sailo G. and Bagyaraj D.J., Influence of Glomus bagyarajii and PGPRs on the growth, nutrition and forskohlin concentration of Coleus forskohlii, Biol. Agri. Hort., 23, 371-381 (2006)
  23. Singh M.V., Effect of long-term fertilization and cropping on soil environment and carbon sequestration. In: Training Course on Pollution of Environment by the Modern Agricultural and Industrial Technologies, Feb 05-25, 220-227 (2004)
  24. Rillig M.C., Wright S.F, Nichols K.A, Schmidt W.F. and Torn M.S., Large contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to soil carbon pools in tropical forest soils, Plant Soil., 233, 167-177 (2001)
  25. Wright S.F. and Upadhyaya A., Quantification of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi activity by the glomalin concentration on hyphal traps, Mycorrhiza, 8, 283-285 (1999)
  26. Hontoria C., Velasquez R, Benito M, Almorox J. and Moliner A., Bradford- reactive soil proteins and aggregate stability under abandoned versus tilled olive groves in a semi arid calsisol, Soil Biol. Biochem., 41, 1583-1585 (2009)
  27. Chen S., Rillig M.C. and Wang W., Improving soil protein extraction for metaproteome analysis and glomalin-related soil protein detection, Proteomics, 9, 4970-4973 (2009)
  28. Singh S., Role of mycorrhiza in disturbed lands. Part ll. Soil compaction, soil erosion, soil aggregation, and volcanic eruptions, Mycorrhiza News,15(2), 2-11 (2003)
  29. Bedini S., Elisa P, Luciano A, Sergio P, Paolo B, Emanuele A. and Manuela, G., Changes in soil aggregation and glomalin-related soil protein content as affected by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices,Soil Biol. Biochem., 41, 1491-1496 (2009)
  30. Nichols K.A. and Wright S.F., Comparison of glomalin and humic acid in eight native U.S. soils, Soil Sci., 170,985-997 (2005)
  31. Piccolo A. and Mbagwu J.S.C., Role of hydrophobic components of soil organic matter in soil aggregate stability, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 63, 1801-1810 (1999)