International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Physicochemical Characterization of Hymenopterasphecidae (mud-wasp) nest

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Chemistry, Benue State University, Makurdi, NIGERIA
  • 2Department of Chemistry, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, UNITED KINGDOM

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 3, Issue (10), Pages 1-7, October,18 (2013)


Hymenoptera sphecidae (mud-wasp) nests were harvested and evaluated for their physicochemical properties.Physicochemical characterization of mud-wasp nest gave the following values: pH 6.54; abrasion resistance, 95.10%; bulkdensity, 1.27 (g/mL); total surface charge, 1.348 (mmol H+eq/g); iodine adsorption number (IAN), 0.1656 (mmol/g); totalsurface area, 6.335 (g/mgI2 M): clay, 10.96%, silt, 15.52%; sand, 73.52%. Spectrophotometric analysis of Hymenopterasphecidaenests was performed using XRF, XRD and FTIR spectroscopy. XRF data revealed the presence of SiO2, and Al2O3in appreciable quantities, while Fe2O3, CaO and MgO were in minor quantities. Na2O and K2O were however found to bepresent in trace amounts. Infrared spectral analysis showed that the sample is a composite of quartz, feldspar, kaolinite andmontmorillonite. The dominant presence of quartz was further confirmed by PXRD which also revealed the presence ofhalloysites.


  1. HunteraJ.M., Insect clay geography in Sierra Leone,Journal of Cultural Geography, 4(2), 13 (1984)
  2. University of Pretoria publication, http.//www.University ofPretoria, Retrieved February 16th 2011 (2011)
  3. Okparaeke O.C., Agha I.I. and Ejikeme P.M., Removal of Cu(II) and Hg(II)ionsfrom simulated waste water by adsorption on tounactivated/activated carbon from Brachtystagea Eurycoma seed pods, Intraparticulate diffusivitysorption studies, Jour.Chem. Soc., 35(1), 94-98(2010)
  4. Horsfall M. and Ayebaemi I.S., (2005), Equilibrium sorption study ofAl3+, Co2+ and Ag+in aqueous solution by fluted pumpkin (Telfariaoccidendalis HOOKf) wastebiomass, Acta.Chim.Slov., 52, 174-181 (2010)
  5. Njoku V.O., Oguzie E.E., Obi C., Bello O.S. and AyukA.A., Adsorption of copper (II) and lead (II) from aqueoussolutions onto Nigerian natural clay, Australian Journal ofBasic and Applied Science, 5(5), 346-353 (2011)
  6. Keskinkan O., Goksu M.Z.L., Basibuyuk M. and ForsterC.F., Heavy metal adsorption characteristics of a submerged aquatic plant (Myriophyllumspicatum), ProcessBiochem., 39, 179-183 (2003)
  7. Okonkwo A.E. and Anwasi S., Modelling of copper and zinc adsorption from aqueous solutions byThithoniadiversifolia, Journal of Chemical Society ofNigeria, 3(1), 66-72 (2010)
  8. Kelth L.H. and Telliard W.A., Priority pollutants, Environmental Science and Technology, 13, 416 (1979)
  9. Igwe J.C., Ekeghe E.M.N. and Abia A.A., Binding of Cu2+,Cd2+, and Hg2+ions from aqueous solutions onto thiolatedand carboxymethylated sawdust, International Journal ofChemistry, 16(3), 121-128 (2006)
  10. Abechi S.E. and Gimba C.E., Adsorption of cadmium from aqueous solution by activated carbon prepared from sawdust and walnut shell, Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria, 35(1), 1-4 (2010)
  11. FAO/WHO, Evaluation of certain food additives andcontaminants mercury, lead & cadmium.Food and agricultural organization/World health organization 16th report, Rome, 84 (1972)
  12. Chukwuma C.S., Environmental lead exposure in Africa,Am. Bio., 26(6), 399-403 (1997)
  13. Ahmedna M.S., Clarke S.J., Rao R.M., Marshall W.E. and John M.M., Use of filtration and buffers in raw sugar colour measurements, Jour. Sci. Food Agric., 75, 109-116 (1997)
  14. A.O.A.C., Official methods of analysis, 13th edition.Washington D.C, 1-7 (1990)
  15. Toles C.A., Marshall W.E., Johns M.M., Wartelle L.A. and McAloon A., Acid activated carbons from almond shells: physical chemical & adsorptive properties & estimated cost of production, Bioresources Techno., 71, 87-92 (2000)
  16. Okieimen F.E., Okieimen C.O. and Wuana R.A.,Preparation andcharacterization of activated carbon from rice husks, Jour. Chem. Soc. Nig., 32(1), 126-136 (2007)
  17. Boehm H.P., Some aspects of the surface chemistry of carbon blacks and other carbons, Carbon, 3(5), 759-760(1994)
  18. Bouyoucos G.J., Improved hydrometer method for making particle size analysis of soils, Agron. Jour., 54, 464–465 (1962)
  19. Schumacher B.A., Methods for the determination of total organic carbon (TOC) in soils and sediments, USEPA –NCEA – C-1282 (2002)
  20. Ravisankar R., Kiruba S., Chandrasekaran A., Senthikumar G. And Maheswaran C., Analysis of ancient potteries of Tamilnadu, India by spectroscopic techniques, Ind. Jour.Sci. Tech., 3(8), 858-862 (2010)
  21. Hasany S.M. and Chaudhary M.H., Sorption potential of Hare river sand for the removal of Antimony from acidic aqueous solution, Appl. Rad. Isot., 47, 467-471 (1996)
  22. Adejo S.O., Wuana R.A., Leave E.T. and Angba O.M., Evaluation of physicochemical and adsorptive properties of adsorbents prepared from guinea corn (Sorghum bicolor) husks, Nig. Jour. Pure App. Sci., 1, 1-9 (2008)
  23. Wartelle L.H. and Marshall W.E., Nutshells as granular activated carbons: physical and adsorptive properties, Jour.Chem. Tech. Biotech., 76, 451- 455 (2001)
  24. Weber T.W. and Chakkravorti P., Pore and solid diffusion models for fixed bed adsorbents, A.I.Chem. Jour., 20, 228 (1974)
  25. Okafor J.O. and Aneke N.A.G., Evaluation of sorption capacity of locally developed activated carbon using methylene blue number method, Chem. Class Jour., 124-127 (2007)
  26. Gillman G.P. and Sumpter E.A., Modification to the compulsive exchange method for measuring exchange characteristics of soils, Aust. Jour. Soil Res., 24, 66-68 (1986)
  27. Ravisankar R., Senthilkumar G., Kruba S., Chandrasekaran A. and Prakash J.P., Mineral analysis of coastal sediment of Tuna Gujarat, India, Ind. Jour. Sci. Tech., 3(7), 774-780 (2010)
  28. Nayak P.S. and Singh B.K., Instrument characterization of clay by XRF, XRD & FTIR, Bull. Mater. Sci., 30(3), 235238 (2007)
  29. Duncan W.S., Ledger E.B. and Whitehead V.S. (n.d) X-raydiffraction verification of Aviris clay mineral identification,Summitville area, Southeast Colarado, Nocogdoches,SFASA, 1-9 (1998)