International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Enzyme - Linked Immunosorbent Assay (Elisa) of Aflatoxin B1 in Groundnut and Cereal Grains in Lagos, Nigeria

Author Affiliations

  • 1Chemistry Department, University of Lagos, Akoka, NIGERIA
  • 2Chemistry Department, Lagos State University Ojo, Lagos, NIGERIA

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 1, Issue (8), Pages 1-5, November,18 (2011)


Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique was used to assess the levels of aflatoxin B1 in groundnut and cereal grains commonly consumed by wide majority of Nigeria populace. Homogenous samples purchased from different markets in Lagos were extracted with 70% (v/v) methanol. The extracted samples and HRD-conjugated aflatoxin B1 were mixed and added to the antibody coated microwell. On removal of non-specific reactants, TMB substrate was added and the microwells measured optically by microplate reader at 450nm. The results showed that aflatoxin contents of groundnut ranged from 6.25 ng/g to 7.80 ng/g. The levels of this substance were 4.18 ng/g and 28.50 ng/g in millet samples. The maize samples contained between 2.51 ng/g and 3.94 ng/g aflatoxin as against the 5.20 ng/g found in sorghum. About fifty one percent aflatoxin incidence was found in the 99 samples investigated. With a safe limit of 20 ng/g set by food and drug administration agency, only the millet samples would prove toxic to the consumers of these products.


  1. Chun H.S., Kim H.J., Ok. H.E., Hwang J. and Chung, D., Determination of aflatoxin levels in nuts and their products consumed in South Korea, Food Chemistry,102, 385-391 (2007)
  2. Hall A.J. and Wild C. P., Liver cancer in low and middle income countries; prevention should target vaccination, contaminated needles and aflatoxins, Br. Med. J., 326, 994-995 (2003)
  3. Kankar A., A study on the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk produced in Sarab city of Iran, Food Control,16, 593-599 (2005)
  4. CAST (Council for Agricultural Science and Technology), Mycotoxins: risks in plant, animal and human systems, Council for Agricultural Science and Technology, Ames, Iowa, Task Force Rep., 139, (2003)
  5. Chiavaro E., Asta C.D., Galaverna G., Biancardi, A., Gambarelli E., Dossena A. and Marchelli R., New reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method to detect aflatoxins in food and feed with cyclodextrins as fluorescence enhancers added to the eluent, J. Chromatogr. A, 937, 31–40 (2001)
  6. IARC, IARC Monograph on the evaluation of carcinogenic risk to humans, Vol. 56, Toxins derived from F. moniliform: Fumonisins B1 and B2 and fusarin C: In some naturally occurring substances: Food items and constituents, heterocyclic aromatic amines and mycotoxins. IARC Press, Lyons, pp. 445-466 1993)
  7. Bankole S.A. and O.O. Mabekoje, Occurrence of aflatoxins and fumonisins in preharvest maize from south western Nigeria, Food Addit. Contam., 21, 251-255 (2004)
  8. Kew M.C., Synergistic interaction between aflatoxin B1 and hepatitis B virus in hepatocarcinogenesis. Liver Int., 23, 405409 (2003)
  9. Hussein H.S., and Brasel J.M.. Toxicity, metabolism, and impact of mycotoxins on humans and animals, Toxicology, 167, 101–134 (2001)
  10. Galvano F., Ritieni A., Piva G. and Pietri. A., Mycotoxins in the human food chain. In: Mycotoxin Blue Book (D. Diaz, ed). Nottingham University Press, London, 187-224 (2005)
  11. Jonsyn–Ellis, F.E., Aflatoxin and Ochratoxin in sera samples of School children, J. of Nutri. and Environ Medicine. 16) 52-58 (2007)
  12. Abdulrazzaq Y.M., Osman N., Yousif Z.M. and Al- Falahi S., Aflatoxin M1 in breast-milk of UAE women, Ann. Trop. Paediatr.,23, 173-179 (2003)
  13. el-Nezami H.S., Nicoletti G., Neal G.E., Donohue D.C. and Ahokas J.T., Aflatoxin M1 in human breast milk samples from Victoria, Australia and Thailand, Food Chem. Toxicol., 33, 173-179 (1995)
  14. Craufurd P.Q., Prasad P.V.V., Waliyar F. and Taheri. A., Drought, pod, pre-harvest Aspergillus infection and aflatoxin contamination on peanut in Niger, Field Crop Research,98, 20-29 (2006)
  15. Gupta A. and Gopal M., Aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus isolates pathogenic to coconut insect pests, World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 18, 325–331 2002)
  16. Ayejuyo O.O., Williams A.B. and Imafidon T.F. Ocratoxin, A burdens in Rice from Lagos Markets, Nigeria, J of Environ. Sci. Technol., 1(2) 80-84 (2008)
  17. Chiou, C.H., Miller, M., Wilson, D.L.,Trail, F., Linz, J.E.. Chromosomal location plays a role in regulation of aflatoxin gene expression in Aspergillus parasiticus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 68, 306-315 (2002)
  18. Roze L.V., Calvo A.M., Gunterus A., Beaudry R., Kall M., Linz J.E., Ethylene modulates development and toxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus possibly via an ethylene sensor-mediated signalling pathway, J. Food Protection,67, 438-447 (2004)
  19. Gunterus A., Roze L.L., Beaudry R. and Linz J.E., Ethylene inhibits aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus grown on peanuts, Food Microbiology,24, 658-663 (2007)
  20. Dorner J.W., Simultaneous quantitation of Aspergillus flavusA. parasiticus and aflatoxin in peanuts, J. AOAC Int., 85, 911–916 (2002)
  21. Escobar A. and Regueiro O.S. Determination of aflatoxin B1 in Cuba and (1990 through 1996) using an immunoenzymatic reagent kit (Aflacen), J.Food Protection,65, 219-221 (2002)
  22. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, (FAO) Worldwide regulations for mycotoxins in food and feed in 2003, FAO Food and Nutrition Paper, No. 81, FAO, Rome, (2004)
  23. Gong Y., Egal S., Hounsa. A., Turner P., Hall A., Cardwell K. and Wild C., determination of aflatoxin exposure in young children from Benin and Togo West Africa: the critical role of weaning, Int. J. Epidemiol., 32, 556-562 (2003)
  24. Miraglia M., Brera C. and Colatosti M., Application of biomarkers to assessment of risk to human health from exposure to mycotoxins, Microchemical Journal, 54, 472–477 (1996)
  25. Nuryono N., Agus A., Wedhastri S., Maryudani Y.B., Sigit Setyabudi F.M.C., Bohm, J., Razzazi-Fazeli, E. A limited survey of aflatoxin M1 in milk from Indonesia by ELISA, Food Control,20, 721-724 (2009)
  26. Yazdanpanah H., Mohammadi T., Abouhossain G., and Cheraghali A.M., Effect of roasting on degradation of aflatoxins in contaminated pistachio nuts, Food Chem. Toxicol., 43, 1135–1139 (2005)
  27. Park J.W., Kim E.K. and Kim Y.B., Estimation of the daily exposure of Koreans to aflatoxin B1 through food consumption, Food Addit. Contam., 21, 70-75 (2004)