International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Beach Environments along the Coastal Stretches of West Bengal, India

Author Affiliations

  • 119, Raj Krishna Pal Lane, Kolkata – 700 075, India

Res. J. Marine Sci., Volume 10, Issue (1), Pages 4-13, December,13 (2022)


West Bengal coast has been classified as a typical lowland coast by its origin and is a very significant product of extensive fluvio-marine deposits carried by the Ganga River and the Bay of Bengal. Tidal fluctuations, wave parameters, long shore currents, sand flats, and beach ridges are the characteristic features of the coastal areas of West Bengal. Beach is one of the dominant features in the coastal region that explains the characteristics and nature of the coast. Steep wave crests break in the surf zone of the beach and the formation of breakers depends on the beach width and beach slope, and the breaking types, in general, are spilling to collapsing as recorded in the West Bengal coasts. In the beach environment, higher the beach width, less the beach slope, and both these factors control the wave parameters as wave is one of the important factors in controlling the nature and shape of the depositional environment as well as the grain size distribution of the coastal areas. Observations revealed that the coastal region of West Bengal is an erosive one as it is a cyclone prone area. The cyclonic storms that ravaged the coast off and on devastate the coastlines on a regular basis indicating the West Bengal coastal zone as a vulnerable one. Sea level rise due to climatic change is another factor that might be considered as a probable reason for the coastal erosion in most of the beaches in South 24 Parganas and Purba Medinipur districts comprising coastal regions in the state of West Bengal. Such erosional features and the bedding structures exposed along the plain of erosional sites help in the interpretation of the coastal morphodynamics along the vulnerable coastal tract of the state.


  1. Das G. K. (2011)., Sunderbans – Environment and Ecosystem., Sarat Book House, Kolkata, pp 1-254, ISBN: 81-87169-72-9
  2. Das G. K. (2015)., Estuarine Morphodynamics of the Sunderbans., Springer, Switzerland, pp 1-211, ISBN: 978-3-319-11342-5
  3. Bhattacharya, A., and Das, G. K. (2002)., Dynamic geomorphic environment of Indian Sunderbans., Changing environmental scenario of the Indian subcontinent, 284-298.
  4. Bhatacharyya, S., Rakshit, S., Roy Chaudhuri, S and Sengupta, R, (2003)., Formation of concretions and compact sediment – an evidence of Holocene sea level still stand., Geological Survey of India Report, Newsletter, Marine Wing, Vol. XVII, No. 1, 18-19.
  5. Das, G. K. (2017)., Tidal Sedimentation in the Sunderban’s Thakuran Basin., Springer, Switzerland, pp 1-151, ISBN: 978-3-319-44190-0
  6. Bhattacharya, A. (2000)., Some geomorphic observations indicating shoreline variation in the coastal tract of West Bengal (India) – A case study around Bakkhali in Sunderbans., Proc. Int. Quat. Seminar on INQUA Shoreline, Indian Ocean Sub-Commission, 32-37.
  7. Das, G. K. (2004)., Sedimentation processes in the Thakuran River Basin, Sunderban, India., pp 50-58, In Bengal Basin, Ed. S. R. Basu, acb Publication, Kolkata, pp 1-102, ISBN: 81-87500-17-4
  8. Das, G. K. (2010)., Environment status of Bakkhali beach, West Bengal., Geographical Review of India, 72(2), 132 – 139.
  9. Mitra, P. K. and Samadder A. K. (2003)., Correlation of wave parameters with beach slope along some selected coastal tracts of West Bengal and Orissa., Geological Survey of India Report, 2003, Newsletter, Marine Wing, Vol. XVII, No. 1, 20-22.
  10. Samanta S. and Paul S. K. (2016)., Geospatial analysis of shoreline and land use/land cover changes through remote sensing and GIS techniques. Model., Earth Syst. Environ. 2, 108,
  11. Samanta, S. and Pal, D. K. (2016)., Change detection of land use and land cover over a period of 20 years in Papua New Guinea., Nat Sci, 8, 138–151. doi:10.4236/ns.2016. 83017.
  12. Schwartz, M. (2005)., Encyclopedia of coastal science., Springer, Netherlands, 1–1097, ISBN: 978-1-4020-4871-5.
  13. Shore Protection Manual (1984)., US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station., Coastal Engineering Research Center, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 14(2), 587–601.
  14. Zuzek, P. J., Nairn, R. B. and Thieme, S. J. (2003)., Spatial and temporal consideration for calculating shoreline change rates in the Great Lakes Basin., J Coast Res, 38,125–146.
  15. Wright, L. D., Short, A. and Green, M. (1985)., Short-term changes in the morphodynamic states of beaches and surf zones: An empirical predictive model., Marine Geology, 62(3-4), 339-364, DOI: 10.1016/0025-3227(85) 90123-9.
  16. Janssen, P. (2004)., The Interaction of Ocean Waves and Wind., Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK, ISBN: 9780511525018
  17. Das, G. K. (2016)., Sediment Grain Size., pp. 555–558. In: Encyclopedia of Estuaries. Michael J. Kennish (ed), Springer, pp 1-760. ISBN: 978-94-017-8802-1
  18. Das, G. K. (2008)., Sediment Characteristics of Beach Sands of Digha and Talseri., Indian Science Cruiser, 22 (5), 17-23.
  19. Das, G. K. (2009). Beach Processes of Tidal Islands of Hugli Estuary, West Bengal, Geographical Review of India, 71 (3), 240-248., undefined, undefined
  20. Komar, P. D. (1976)., Beach Processes and Sedimentation., Englewood Cliffs, Nj: Prentice-Hall.
  21. Das, G. K. (2016)., Sedimentary Structures., pp. 568–572. In: Encyclopedia of Estuaries. Michael J Kennish (ed), Springer, pp 1-760. ISBN: 978-94-017-8802-1
  22. Das, G. K. (2009)., Trash in the sea beach., Indian Science Cruiser, 23(2), 8-9.