International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Acute Toxicity Profiling of Combined Aqueous Extracts of Ficusracemosa and Azadirachtaindica

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Biochemistry, K.S. Hegde Medical Academy, Nitte University, Mangalore 575018, INDIA

Res. J. of Pharmaceutical Sci., Volume 3, Issue (5), Pages 7-11, July,30 (2014)


Ficus racemosa and Azadirachta indica have been recognized for their various curative properties and used in traditional medicines from time immemorial. The stem bark extract of Ficus racemosa is known to be a potent anti-inflammatory, memory-enhancing, anti-diabetic and anti-diuretic agent. Azadirachta indica leaf extract has been used extensively in the treatment of leprosy, epistaxis, intestinal worms, biliousness, eye problems and skin ulcers. Though the toxicity profiling of these individual plants have been studied, little is known about their toxicity when used in combination. Therefore, we aimed to study the acute toxicity of a combination of these plant extracts in female albino Wistar rats at a limit test of 2 and 5 g/kg body weight (b. wt.) according to the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) guidelines. Administration was restricted to a single oral dose. Behavioral changes, body and organ weights, hematological and biochemical parameters were analyzed. Results showed normal behavior and normal gain in body and organ weights in all the groups. Total WBC count was significantly reduced in both the treated groups. Blood chemistry was unchanged. No mortality was observed in any of the treated groups indicating that the LD50 value of the herbal mixture is above 5 g/kg b. wt.


  1. Jain S. K., Rajvaidya S., Singh G.K., Jain P. and Nagori B.P.,Investigation of Herbal Extract as Hepatoprotective, Res. J. Pharmaceutical Sci.,1(3), 16-18 (2012)
  2. Velayudam, Arul A. and Ilavarasan, Hepatoprotective Activity of Kadukkai Maathirai (A Siddha PolyherbalFormulation) Against Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Liver Damage in Rat, Res. J. Pharmaceutical Sci., 1(4), 17-21 (2012)
  3. Ahmed F., Narendra J.N., Chandra S. and Manjunath S., Acetylcholine and memory-enhancing activity of Ficus racemosa bark, Pharmacogn. Res., 3(4), 246249 (2011)
  4. Sachan N. K., Kumar Y., Pushkar S., Thakur R. N., Gangwar S. S. and Kalaichelvan V. K., Anti-diabetic potential of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Ficus racemosa Linn. Bark in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rat, Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Drug Res.1 (1), 24-27(2009)
  5. Ahmed F., Hudeda S. and Urooj A., Antihyperglycemic activity of Ficus racemosa bark extract in type 2 diabetic individuals, Journal of Diabetes, , 318319 (2011)
  6. Ahmed F. and Urooj A., Anticholin esterase activities of cold and hot aqueous extracts of F. racemosastem bark, Pharmacogn. Mag., 6(22), 142144(2010)
  7. Ratnasooriya W.D., Jayakody J.R. and Nadarajah T., Antidiuretic activity of aqueous bark extract of Sri Lankan Ficus racemosa in rats, ActaBiol Hung., 54(3-4), 357-63 (2003)
  8. Li R.W., Myers S.P., Leach D.N., Lin G.D. and Leach G., A cross-cultural study: anti-inflammatory activity of Australian and Chinese plants, J. Ethnopharmacol., 85, 2532 (2003)
  9. Ramya E., Veeresh P. V., Prabhakar K. R. and Unnikrishnan M. K., Effect of Ficus racemosastem bark extract in type 2 diabetes induced by high-fat diet and low dose stzin rats: A mechanistic approach, Indian J. Pharmacol., 40(2), 160 (2008)
  10. Syed A. M., Mosaddek and Rashid M. M. U., A comparative study of the anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extract of neem leaf and dexamethasone, Bangladesh J. Pharmacol., , 44-47(2008)
  11. Tripathi A., Shrivastav T.G. and Chaube S.K., An increase of granulosa cell apoptosis mediates aqueous neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract-induced oocyte apoptosis in rat, Int J Appl Basic Med Res., 3(1), 2736 (2013)
  12. Shyma K. P., Gupta J. P., Ghosh S., Patel K.K. and Singh V., Acaricidal effect of herbal extracts against cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus using in vitro studies, Parasitol Res., 113(5), 1919-26 (2014)
  13. Bharitkar Y.P., Bathini S., Ojha D., Ghosh S., Mukherjee H., Kuotsu K., Chattopadhyay D. and Mondal N. B., Antibacterial and antiviral evaluation of sulfonoquinovosyldiacylglyceride: a glycolipid isolated from Azadirachta indica leaves, Lett Appl Microbiol., 58(2), 184-9 (2014)
  14. Mukherjee N., Mukherjee S., Saini P., Roy P. and Babu S. P. S., Antifilarial effects of polyphenol rich ethanolic extract from the leaves of Azadirachta indica through molecular and biochemical approaches describing reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated apoptosis of Setariacervi, Exp Parasitol., 136, 4158 (2014)
  15. Bisht S. and Sisodia S.S., Anti-Hyperglycemic and Antidyslipidemic Potential of Azadirachta indica Leaf Extract in STZ- Induced Diabetes Mellitus, J. Pharm. Sci. & Res., 2 (10),622-627(2010)
  16. Chunamoni D. and Robindra T., Ethnobotanical(notes of the Rabhacommunity in Mataikhar reserve forest of Kamrup district, Assam, India, Res. J. Recent Sci., 3(6), 26-33 (2014)
  17. Sharma M., Sharma C.L. and Marak P.N., Indigenous uses of medicinal plants in North Garo Hills, Meghalaya, NE India, Res. J. Recent. Sci., 3 (ISC-2013), 137-146 (2014)
  18. Mondal D. and Mondal T., A Review on efficacy of Azadirachta indica A. Juss based biopesticides: An Indian perspective, Res. J. Recent Sci.,1(3), 94-99 (2012)
  19. Jaykaran, Bhardwaj P., Kantharia N., Yadav P. and Panwar A., Acute toxicity study of an aqueous extract of Ficus racemosa Linn. bark in albino mice, J. Toxicol.6(1) (2008)
  20. Kupradinun P., Tepsuwan A., Tanthasri N., Meesiripan N., Tunsakul S., Tompat W., Jarratwisarutporn Y. and Kusamran W. R.., Toxicity Testing of Flowers of Neem Tree, Thai J. Vet. Med, 40(1), 47-55 (2010)
  21. Acute Oral Toxicity Up-and-Down-Procedure (UDP), OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, 425, 1-27(2008)
  22. Beuege J. A. and Aust S. D., Microsomal lipid peroxidation, Method Enzymol.30, 302-10(1978)
  23. Okpanyi S.N. and Ezeukwu G.C., Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of Azadirachta indica, Planta Med., 41, 34-39 (1981)
  24. Subapriya R. and Nagini S., Medicinal properties of neem leaves: a review, Curr. Med. Chem. Anti-Canc. Agents, , 149-156 (2005)
  25. Mokkhasmitt M., Swatdimogkol K. and Satrawaha P., Study on toxicity of Thai medicinal plants, Bull. Dept. Med. Sci.,12(2/4), 36-65 (1971)
  26. Chattopadhyay R.R., Possible biochemical mode of anti-inflammatory action of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. in rats, Indian J. Exp. Biol,.61(1), 75 (1998)
  27. Paarakh P.M., Ficus racemosa Linn. An overview, Nat. Prod. Radiance, 8(1), 84-90 (2009)
  28. Subramanian S.S. and Nair A.G.R., Melicitrin-A new myricetin glycoside from the flowers of Meliazadirachta, Indian J. Chem., 10, 452 (1972)
  29. Farm Chemicals Handbook, Meister Publishing Co. Willoughby, OH., Available:
  30. Thomson, W.T., Agricultural Chemicals. Book I: Insecticides. Thomson Publications, Fresno, CA., Available: http:/ (1992)