International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Potential of Rutin and Vildagliptin Combination against Alloxan Induced Diabetic Nephropathy in Mice

Author Affiliations

  • 1Faculty of Pharmacy, VNS Group of Institutions, Bhopal-452 044, MP, INDIA
  • 2 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dr. Harisingh Gour University, Sagar-470 003, MP, INDIA
  • 3 Department of Natural Products, NIPER, Sector 67, Mohali-160 062, Punjab, INDIA

Res. J. of Pharmaceutical Sci., Volume 2, Issue (9), Pages 1-7, October,30 (2013)

Abstract

Objective: The aim of present study was to explore antidiabetic and antioxidant actions of rutin, vildagliptin and their combination in the kidney of alloxan induced (150 mg/kg alloxan monohydrate in normal saline injected by intraperitoneal route) diabetic mice. Methods: Animals were allocated into five groups (each group of six mice, n=6) as: i. control group treated with carboxymethyl cellulose (0.5 %, o.d.), ii. a diabetic control group treated with carboxymethyl cellulose (0.5 %, o.d.), iii. diabetic mice treated with rutin (400 mg/kg, o.d.), iv. diabetic mice treated with vildagliptin (30 mg/kg, o.d.) and v. diabetic mice treated with combination of rutin (400 mg/kg, o.d.) and vildagliptin (30 mg/kg, o.d.). The level of antioxidant enzymes such as lipid peroxidase (LPO), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and non enzymatic level of reduced glutathione (GSH) was measured in plasma. Similarly level of protein, albumin, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was measured alongwith urinary output and urinary albumin level before as well as after treatment with drugs. Results: The results obtained after treatment with combination of rutin and vildagliptin were more efficient than those obtained from treatment with either rutin or vildagliptin. Likewise histological damage to glomeruli and tubule (hypertrophy) due to diabetic nephropathy was also improved with combination. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the combination of rutin and vildagliptin is more effective than either of the two drugs alone and can be another effective alternative therapeutic for diabetic nephropathy.

References

  1. Balakumar P., Arora M. K., Ganti S. S., Reddy J. and Singh M., Recent advances in pharmacotherapy for diabetic nephropathy: Current perspectives and future direction. Pharmacol. Res., 60, 24-32 (2009)
  2. Bailey C.J. and Day C., Traditional Plant Medicines as Treatments for Diabetes, Diabetes Care12, 553-564 (1989)
  3. Pradeepa R. and Mohan V.,The Changing Scenario of the Diabetes Epidemic: Implications for India, Indian J. Med. Res., 116, 121-32 (2002)
  4. William C. and Duckworth M.D., Hyperglycemia and cardiovascular disease, Curr. Atheroscler. Rep., , 383-391 (2001)
  5. Ha H. and Kim K.H., Pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy: the role of oxidative stress and protein kinase C, Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract., 45(2-3), 147-151 (1999)
  6. Greenberg R.A. and Sacks D.B., Screening for diabetes: is it warranted? Clin. Chim. Acta., 315(1-2), 61-69 (2002)
  7. Ugochukwu N.H. and Babady N.E., Antioxidant effects of Gongronema latifolium in hepatocytes of rat models of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, Fitoterapia, 73(7-8), 612-618 (2002)
  8. Ugochukwu N.H., Babady N.E., Cobourne M.K. and Gassett S.R., The effect of Gongronema latifolium extracts on serum lipid profile and oxidative stress in hepatocytes of diabetic rats, J. Biosci., 28(1), 1-5 (2003)
  9. Maritim A.C., Sanders R.A. and Watkins J.B., Diabetes, oxidative stress and antioxidants: a review, J. Biochem. Mol. Toxicol., 17(1), 2438 (2003)
  10. Palanduz S., Ademoglu E., Gokkusu C., Plasma antioxidants and type 2 diabetes mellitus, Res. Commun. Mol. Pathol. Pharmacol., 109(5-6), 309-318 (2001)
  11. Limaye P.V., Raghuram N. and Sivakami S., Oxidative stress and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in the renal cortex of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats, Mol. Cell. Biochem., 243(1-2), 147-152 (2003)
  12. Kumar D., Karmase A., Jagtap S., Shekhar R. and Bhutani K.K., Pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity of cassiamin A, a bianthraquinone from Cassia siamea. Nat. Prod. Commun, 8(2), 195-198 (2013)
  13. Ponnachan P.T.C., Paulose C.S. and Panikka K.R., Effect of leaf extract of Aegel marmelose in diabetic rat, Indian J. Exp. Biol., 31, 345-347 (1993)
  14. Chattopadhyay R.R., Hypoglycemic effect of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats, Indian J. Exp. Biol., 31(11), 891-893 (1993)
  15. Evans J.L., Antioxidants: do they have a role in the treatment of insulin resistance? Indian J. Med. Res., 125(3), 355-372 (2007)
  16. Karunanayake E.H. and Tendon K.H., Search of novel hypoglycemic agents from medicinal plants, In: Sharma, A.K. (Ed.), Diabetes Mellitus and its Complications. An update. MacMillan India Ltd., New Delhi, India (1993)
  17. Patel K. and Srinivasan K., Plant foods in the management of diabetes mellitus: vegetables as potential hypoglycemic agents, Nahrung., 41(2), 68-74 (1997)
  18. Ahmed I., Adeghate E., Cummings E., Sharma A.K., Singh J., Beneficial effects and mechanism of action of Momordica charantia juice in the treatment of streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in rat, Mol. Cell. Biochem., 261(1-2), 63-70 (2004)
  19. Kamalakkannan N. and Stanely Mainzen P.P., Rutin improves the antioxidant status in streptozocin-induced diabetic rat tissues, Mol. Cell. Biochem., 293(102), 211-219 (2006)
  20. Mathieu C. and Degrande E., Vildagliptin: a new oral treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Vasc., Health Risk Manag., 4(6), 1349-1360 (2008)
  21. Bhatia A.L., Manda K., Patni S., Sharma A.L., Prophylactic action of linseed (Linum usitatissimum) oil against cyclophosphamide-induced oxidative stress in Mouse brain, J. Med. Food, 9(2), 261-264 (2006)
  22. Ohkawa H., Ohishi N. and Yagi K., Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction, Anal. Biochem., 95(2), 351-358 (1979)
  23. Ellman G.L., Tissue sulfhydryl groups, Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 82, 70-77 (1959)
  24. Jollow D.J., Mitchell J.R., Zampaglione N. and Gillette J.R., Bromobenzene induced liver necrosis: protective role of glutathione and evidence for 3,4-bromobenzene oxide as the hepatotoxic metabolite, Pharmacology, 11(3), 151-169 (1974)
  25. Aebi H., Catalase in vitro., Methods Enzymol., 105, 121-126 (1984)
  26. Lucci N. and Mazzafera P., Rutin synthase in fava d'anta: purification and influence of stressors, Canada J. Plant Sci., 89(5), 895-902 (2009)
  27. Luo H., Jiang B.H., King S.M., Chen C.Y., Inhibition of Cell Growth and VEGF expression in ovarian cancer cells by flavonoids, Nutr. Cancer, 60(6), 800-809 (2008)