International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

An Assessment of Ambient Air Quality in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

Author Affiliations

  • 1Central Department of Botany, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu Nepal

Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 11, Issue (3), Pages 10-15, July,22 (2022)


Road widening activity, the growing vehicles were being contamination of dust, smokes in air quality of Kathmandu valley. It has been a concern for environment. In this study, ambient air quality was monitored through field and laboratory analyses by using nine different parameters at different locations of Kathmandu valley. The particulate matters, PM10 ranged between 127 and 1193µg/m3 and PM2.5 ranged between 23 and 105µg/m3. The total suspended particles (TSP) at different location ranged between 240 and 1390µg/m3. These analytical values were higher than National Ambient Air Quality Standard values in Kathmandu. Gaseous pollutants like, SO2, NO2, benzene, lead, and ozone were mostly within acceptable levels. These particulate matters value could be lower with the completion of road widening projects and proper traffic management in valley. The stable city is recommended to continue the air monitoring system and bring suitable environment along with developmental activities.


  1. NHRC (2016)., Situation analysis of ambient air pollution and respiratory health effects in Kathmandu Valley2015., National Health Research Council, Kathmandu, Nepal
  2. ICIMOD (2012)., Rapid urban assessment of air quality for Kathmandu, Nepal., International center for integrated mountain development.
  3. CBS (2011)., Population Census 2011 of Nepal: National report, Central bureau of statistics, Kathmandu, Nepal.,
  4. CBS (2013)., Environment Statistics of Nepal., Central Bureau of Statistics, Kathmandu, Nepal.
  5. Aryal, R.K., Lee, B.K., Karki, R., Gurung, A., Kandasamy, J., Pathak, B.K., Sharma, S. and Giri, N. (2008)., Seasonal PM10 dynamics in Kathmandu Valley., Atmospheric Environment, 42, 8623-8633.
  6. ICIMOD, M. (2007)., UNEP., Kathmandu Valley Environment Outlook, Kathmandu, Nepal.
  7. CPCB (2013)., Guidelines for manual sampling and analyses., Guidelines for the measurement of ambient air pollutants, Vol. I, Central pollution control board, national ambient air quality series: NAAQMS/36/2012-13. 62 p.
  8. MOPE (2017)., Air quality management action plan for Kathmandu Valley., Ministry of population and environment; department of environment, Lalitpur, Kathmandu, Nepal.
  9. Lamare, R. E. and Chaturvedi S.S. (2014)., Suspended particulate matter in ambient air of Shillong, Meghalaya., Indian journal of scientific research and technology2(6): 37-41.
  10. World Health Organization (2016)., Ambient air pollution: A global assessment of exposure and burden of disease.,
  11. Gurung, A. and Bell, M. L. (2012)., Exposure to airborne particulate matter in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal., Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology. 22, 235–242.
  12. Parajuly, K. (2016)., Clean up the air in Kathmandu., Nature, 533(7603), 321-321.
  13. Analysis, A. D. T. S. (1991)., Respiratory Health and PM10 Pollution., AM REV RESPIR DIS, 144, 668-674.
  14. Sapkota, B. K. and Dhaubhadel, R. (2002)., Atmospheric turbidity over Kathmandu Valley., Atmospheric environment. 36 : 1249-1257.
  15. USEPA (2000a)., Code of federal regulations, Title 40, Part 60, Appendix A, Method 301: Field validation of pollutant measurement methods from various waste media., US Environmental protection agency, Washington, DC. 42 pp.
  16. USEPA (2000b)., Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 60, Appendix A, Method 5: Determination of particulate emissions from stationary sources., US Environmental protection agency, Washington, DC. 41 pp.
  17. EPA, U. (2003)., Air quality Index: a guide to air quality and your health., Washington, DC, US Environmental Protection Agency.
  18. West, P.W. and Gaeke, G. C. (1956)., Fixation of sulphur dioxide as sulfitomercurate (11) and subsequent colorimetric determination., Annals of Chemistry, 28: 1916-1819.
  19. World Bank (2016)., The cost of air pollution: strengthening the economic case for action, 2016 by the World Bank.,