International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Effect of Pharmaceutical Effluent on Morphological Parameters and Chlorophyll Content of Cicer arietinum and Vigna radiate

Author Affiliations

  • 1Dept. of Biochemistry, Govt. Holkar Science College, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, INDIA

Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., Volume 2, Issue (10), Pages 12-17, October,10 (2013)


Experiment was conducted to analyse whether pharmaceutical effluent used to irrigate crops is safe or not. Germinated seedlings of Cicer arietinum (black gram) and Vigna radiata (moong) were treated with varying dilutions of untreated pharmaceutical effluents (100 %, 75%, 50%, 25% and 0%) and their effect was calculated on various parameters like viability %, germination%, vigour index, root length, shoot length, dry weight, fresh weight and chlorophyll. From the results of experiment, it was observed that highest reduction in viability % (6%), germination% (13.89%), vigour index (16.01%), root length (16.95%), shoot length (26.50%), fresh weight (22.33%), total chl (36.36%), chl a (28.57%), chl b (37.57%) was obtained at 0% dilution of pharmaceutical effluent while the highest reduction in dry weight (13.11%) was at 75% of pharmaceutical effluent in Cicer arietinum. In case of Vigna radiata the highest reduction in viability % (5%), germination% (2.78%), vigour index (41.74%), root length (38.26%), shoot length (42.06%), fresh weight (22.33%), dry weight (41.17%), chl a (28.57%), chl b (37.67%) was obtained at 0% dilution of pharmaceutical effluent while in case of total chl (20%) maximum reduction was found at 75%.The results of present study showed that pure pharmaceutical effluent is not safe for irrigation but in case of scarcity of water, pharmaceutical effluent could safely be used for irrigation purpose after proper processing and dilution.


  1. Manunatha N., Effect of industrial effluents on seed quality attributes of cereal crops, Thesis submitted to the University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science (Agriculture) In Seed Science and Technology, 7-95 (2008)
  2. Dhevagi P. and Oblisami G., Effect of paper mill effluent on germination of agricultural crops, J. Ecobiol., 12(4), 243-249 (2002)
  3. Kabir M., Iqbal M.Z., Shafiq M. and Faroogi Z.R.,Reduction in germination and seedling growth of Thespesiapopulnea Ls, caused by lead and cadmium treatments, Pak. J. Bot.,40(6), 2419-2426 (2008)
  4. Rehman S., Harris P.J.C. and Bourne W.F., Effect of pre-sowing treatment with calcium salts, Acacia seeds, J. Plant Nutrition,21, 277-285 (1998)
  5. Abdul-Baki A.A. and Anderson J.D., Vigour determination of soyabean seeds by multiple criteria,Crop.Sci.,13:630-633 (1973)
  6. Lakon G.,The vigour of seeds and its determination by Topographically Tetrazonium method, Saatwirtschaft, 2, 37-41 (1942)
  7. Sadasivam S. and Manickam A., In: Biochemical method for Agricultural sciences Wiley eastern ltd, New Delhi, 184-185 (1992)
  8. Sheela D. and Soumya D.M., Effect of K.S.D.P. effluent on Abelmoschus esculenlus, Geobios, 31, 155-157 (2004)
  9. Chandra R., Bharagava R.N., Yadav S. and Mohan B., Accumulation and distribution of toxic metals in wheat Triticum aestivum) and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea)irrigated with distillery and tannery effluents, Journal of hazardous matter, 169, 1514-1521 (2009)
  10. Shrestha M.K. and Niroula B., Germination behaviour of pra seeds on municipality sewage and some industrial effluents of Biratragar, Our Nature,, 33-36 (2003)
  11. Mittler R., Oxidative stress antioxidants and stress tolerance, Trends Plant Science, 7, 405-410 (2002)
  12. Sharma K.R. and Agrawal M., Biological effects of heavy metals: An overview, Journal of Environmental Biology, 26, 301 313 (2005)
  13. Oladele E.O., Odeigah P.G.C. and Yahaya T., Toxic Effects of Three Industrial Effluents on Growth and Development of Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp (Cultivar it 84 E-124), Journal of Biological Sciences, 11, 320-325(2011)
  14. Verma L. and Sharma J., Effect of dairy and textile waste water on growth of plant wheat, RASAYAN J.Chem.,5(3),351-355 (2012)
  15. Elayarajan M., Land application of treated paper board mill effluent on soil, water and plant ecosystem, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Environmental Science, TNAU, Coimbatore (2002)
  16. Bazai Z.A. and Achakzai A.K.K., Effect of waste water from Quetta city on germination and seedling growth of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L), Journal of Applied Science,6,380382 (2006)
  17. Kaushik P., Garg V.K. and Singh B., Effect of textile effluents on growth performance of wheat cultivars,Bioresour. Technol, 96, 1189-1193 (2005)
  18. Sundaramoorthy P., Kunchithapatam J., Thamizhiniyan P. and Venkatesalu V., Effect of fertilizer factory effluent on germination and seedling growth of groundnut varieties, J. Ecobiol., 13, 3-8 (2001)
  19. Huma Z., Naveed S., Rashid A., Ullah A. and Khattak I.,Effect of domestic and industrial waste water on germination and seedling growth of some plants,Curi.Opin.Argic.,1(1), 27-30 (2012)
  20. Mishra P.C.,Effect of chrome plating industry effluent on cowpea, The Ecoscan, 3, 241-246 (2013)