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Chronic Exposure to Moderate Hypoxia Impairs Reproductive Success in the Mosquitofish Gambusia Affinis

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of studies in Zoology, Karnatak University, Dharwad-580 003, INDIA
  • 2Department of studies in Zoology, Karnatak University, Dharwad-580 003, INDIA
  • 3Department of studies in Zoology, Karnatak University, Dharwad-580 003, INDIA
  • 4Department of studies in Zoology, Karnatak University, Dharwad-580 003, INDIA
  • 5Department of studies in Zoology, Karnatak University, Dharwad-580 003, INDIA

Res. J. Animal, Veterinary and Fishery Sci., Volume 3, Issue (1), Pages 1-5, January,24 (2015)


Increasing incidences of hypoxic environment in aquatic systems is a serious threat to the life of fish. In the present study, chronic effect of moderate hypoxia on reproductive performance was studied in the viviparous fish Gambusia affinis. Exposure of female fish to mild hypoxic condition for a period of 25 days resulted in a general decrease in the body weight and absence of vitellogenic follicles in the ovary compared to controls. Further, the mean number of early embryos (eye-spot stage) did not differ significantly, whereas the mean number of late embryos (yolk sac stage) was higher in hypoxic fish compared to controls. However, the mean number of juveniles produced from hypoxia alone and hypoxic recovery groups remained significantly lower compared to controls. These results suggest that exposure to moderate hypoxia delays the embryonic development at late stage thereby impairs hatching success of juveniles and that exposure to normoxia does not improve the detrimental effect of hypoxia in the viviparous fish G. affinis.


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